Looking for a Safe Place

Security and Transnational Somali Muslim families

In: Journal of Religion in Europe
View More View Less
  • 1 University of Helsinki, Finland

Purchase instant access (PDF download and unlimited online access):

€29.95$34.95

This article explores human security from the perspective of those who live under the securitization and governance of Islam, i.e. Muslims themselves. I focus on one hand on the insecurities and threats that have been identified by Somali Muslims in the diaspora, and on the other hand on their means for managing insecurity and creating a sense of safety. The challenges, opportunities and experiences of the Somali diaspora are linked to the histories of immigration and race in different settlement countries, and also to global discourses and policies on Islam and Muslims. The experiences of Canadian Somalis will serve as a mirror on the situation in Europe, in particular the Nordic country of Finland, where both similarities and differences may be found.

  • Bader Veit. “The Governance of Islam in Europe: The Perils of Modelling,” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 33 (2007): 871886.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Berns-McGown Rima. “I Am Canadian.” Challenging Stereotypes about Young Somali Canadians. IRPP Study No. 38. Montreal, Quebec: IRPP, 2013.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ———. Muslims in the Diaspora. The Somali Communities of London and Toronto. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1999.

  • Byrne Siobhan. “Framing post-9/11 security: A feminist analysis of the securitization of the Canadian state and the experiences of Canadian Muslim communities,” Annual meeting of the Canadian Political Science Association, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, June 4–6, 2008.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Charron Mathieu. Neighbourhood Characteristics and the Distribution of Police-reported Crime in the City of Toronto. Crime and Justice Research Paper Series. Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 2009.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Doolittle Robyn, & Donovan Kevin. “Rob Ford in ‘crack cocaine’ video scandal,” Toronto Star May 16, 2013.

  • English Kathy. “Star overdid ‘Somali’ references in the first report of drug dealers peddling Rob Ford crack video: Public Editor,” Toronto Star May 24, 2013.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey (eu-midis). Main Results Report. European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights, 2009.

  • Floyd Rita. ”Human Security and the Copenhagen School’s Securitization Approach: Conceptualizing Human Security as a Securitizing Move,” Human Security Journal 5 (2007), 2846.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hampson Fen Osler, . “Human Security,” in Wiliams Paul D. (ed.), Security Studies: An Introduction, 229243. London and New York: Routledge, 2008.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hickman Mary J., , Thomas Lyn, , Silvestri Sara, & Nickels Henri. ‘Suspect Communities’? Counter-terrorism policy, the press, and the impact on Irish and Muslim communities in Britain. A Report for Policy Makers and the General Public. London Metropolitan University, 2011.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kilpi Elina. The education of children of immigrants in Finland. DPhil. University of Oxford, 2010.

  • Martikainen Tuomas, . “Finland”, in Nielsen Jørgen S., , Akgönül Samim, , Alibašić Ahmet, & Račius Egdūnas (eds.), Yearbook of Muslims in Europe, Vol. 5, 237246. Leiden: Brill, 2013.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McDonough Sheila, & Hoodfar Homa, . “Muslims in Canada: From Ethnic Groups to Religious Community,” in Bramadat Paul, & Seljak David (eds.), Religion and Ethnicity in Canada, 133–153. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2009.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Menkhaus Ken. ”Stabilisation and humanitarian access in a collapsed state: the Somali case,” Disasters 34/S3 (2010), S320S341.

  • Ministry of the Interior. “Towards a Cohesive Society. Action Plan to Prevent Violent Extremism”, Ministry of the Interior Publications, Helsinki, 28/2012.

  • Myrskylä Pekka. “Maahanmuutto ja nuorten syrjäytymisriskit pääkaupunkiseudulla” [Migration and risks for youth marginalization in greater Helsinki area], Kvartti, Helsingin kaupungin tietokeskuksen neljännesvuosijulkaisu [Quarterly, City of Helsinki Urban Facts Magazine] 2 (2012), 1422.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pagliaro Jennifer. “Toronto Somalis say they were victimized by police in Dixon Road raids,” The Star, June 18, 2013.

  • Research Pew. Religion & Public Life Project, The Future of the Global Muslim Population, January 27 (2011). http://www.pewforum.org/2011/01/27/the-future-of-the-global-muslim-population/ (accessed 22 June 2014).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Change Positive. “Grieving mothers take their message of peace to Parliament Hill,” press release November 17, 2013. http://positivechangeto.com/ (accessed October 29, 2014).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Poverty by Postal Code. The Geography of Neighborhood Poverty. City of Toronto, 1981–2001. A report prepared jointly by United Way of Greater Toronto and the Canadian Council on Social Development. United Way of Greater Toronto, 2004.

  • Rankin Jim, & Winsa Patty. “Unequal justice: Aboriginal and black inmates disproportionately fill Ontario jails,” The Star, March 1, 2013.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sakinah Community Centre. http://sakinahcenter.com/ (accessed June 22, 2014).

  • Smith Sydney. International Media Ethics News, Daily Media Pick, June 1, 2013.

  • Somalis in Helsinki. Somalis in European Cities. At Home in Europe. New York, London: Open Society Foundations, 2013.

  • Spyropoulos Jim. “Task Force to Examine the Achievement of Somali-Speaking Students. Research Summary,” Toronto District School Board, unpublished presentation on February 19, 2013.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Finland Statistics. Population Structure: Language according to age and sex by region 1990–2013, http://193.166.171.75/database/StatFin/vrm/vaerak/vaerak_en.asp (accessed 26 June 2014).

  • Tiilikainen Marja, . “Illness, Healing and Everyday Islam: Transnational Lives of Somali Migrant Women”, in Dessing Nathal M., , Jeldtoft Nadia, , Nielsen Jørgen S., & Woodhead Linda, Everyday Lived Islam in Europe, 147162. Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate, 2013.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tiilikainen Marja, .“It’s Just Like the Internet: Transnational Healing Practices between Somaliland and the Somali Diaspora”, in Dilger Hansjörg, , Kane Abdoulaye, & Langwick Stacey A. (eds.), Medicine, Mobility and Power in Global Africa: Transnational Health and Healing, 271294. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2012.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tiilikainen Marja. Arjen islam: Somalinaisten elämää Suomessa [Everyday Islam: The Life of Somali Women in Finland]. Tampere: Vastapaino, 2003.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Verhoeven Harry. “The self-fulfilling prophecy of failed states: Somalia, state collapse and the Global War on Terror,” Journal of Eastern African Studies 3/3 (2009), 405425.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wæver Ole, . ”Securitization and Desecuritization,” in Lipschutz Ronnie D. (ed.), On Security, 46–86. New York: Columbia University Press, 1995.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Walker Barrington (ed.). The History of Immigration and Racism in Canada: Essential Readings. Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press, 2008.

  • 2

    Kathy English, “Star overdid ‘Somali’ references in the first report of drug dealers peddling Rob Ford crack video: Public Editor,” Toronto Star May 24 (2013).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4

    Jennifer Pagliaro, “Toronto Somalis say they were victimized by police in Dixon Road raids,” Toronto Star, June 18 (2013).

  • 5

    Barrington Walker (ed.), The History of Immigration and Racism in Canada: Essential Readings (Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press, 2008).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7

    Harry Verhoeven, “The self-fulfilling prophecy of failed states: Somalia, state collapse and the Global War on Terror,” Journal of Eastern African Stud ies 3/3 (2009), 405–425.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8

     E.g. Ken Menkhaus, “Stabilisation and humanitarian access in a collapsed state: the Somali case,” Disasters 34/S3 (2010), S320–S341.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    Rita Floyd, “Human Security and the Copenhagen School’s Securitization Approach: Conceptualizing Human Security as a Securitizing Move,” Human Security Journal 5 (2007), 28–46; Fen Osler Hampson, “Human Security,” in Paul D. Wiliams (ed.), Security Studies: An Introduction (London and New York: Routledge, 2008), 229–243.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    Veit Bader, “The Governance of Islam in Europe: The Perils of Modelling,” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 33 (2007): 871–886.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22

    Barrington Walker (ed.), The History of Immigration and Racism in Canada: Essential Readings (Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press, 2008), 238.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23

    Jim Rankin & Patty Winsa, “Unequal justice: Aboriginal and black inmates disproportionately fill Ontario jails,” Toronto Star March 1 (2013).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25

    Rima Berns McGown, Muslims in the Diaspora. The Somali Communities of London and Toronto (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1999); Marja Tiilikainen, Arjen islam: Somalinaisten elämää Suomessa [Everyday Islam: The Life of Somali Women in Finland] (Tampere: Vastapaino, 2003).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 173 49 5
Full Text Views 160 5 1
PDF Views & Downloads 27 8 1