iskcon is traditionally studied as a new religious movement (nrm) or an instance of diasporic Hinduism. I argue here that an examination of the Finnish branch of iskcon can be conceptualized as a case of a glocalized (global-local) religious movement wherein members have created amalgamated identities straddling the borders between nation states and cultures. Members have created a hybrid religious community appealing to both native-born Finns seeking to challenge and redefine the notion of Finnishness and Europeanness, and Indian immigrants seeking to bridge the boundaries between their new Finnish social-religious context and their Indian social-religious heritage. It offers a powerful example of the way in which members of a religious community have utilized their religious identity to situate themselves within the contemporary context of a secularized neoliberal European state.
GauthierFrançois, MartikainenTuomas, and WoodheadLinda. “Introduction: Religion in Market Society.” In Religion in the Neoliberal Age: Political Economy and Modes of Governance, edited by MartikainenTuomas and GauthierFrançois. Farnham, U.K.: Ashgate, 2013, 1–20.
JunnonahoMartti. “On Religious Otherness in Finnish Discourse.” In Beyond the Mainstream: The Emergence of Religious Pluralism in Finland Estonia and Russia, edited by KaplanJeffrey. Helsinki: Finnish Literature Society, 2000, 191–200.
MobergMarcus, GranholmKennet, and NynäsPeter. “Trajectories of Post-Secular Complexity: An Introduction.” In Post-Secular Society, edited by NynasPeter, LassanderMika, and UtriainenTerhi. London: Transaction, 2014, 1–26.
NynäsPeter, IllmanRuth, and MartikainenTuomas. “Rethinking the Place of Religion in Finland.” In On the Outskirts of ‘the Church’: Diversities, Fluidities and New Spaces of Religion in Finland, edited by NynäsPeter, IllmanRuth, and MartikainenTuomas. Zürich: LIT Verlag, 2015, 11–28.
E. Burke Rochford Jr., Hare Krishna Transformed (New York: New York University Press, 2007); David G. Bromley and Larry D. Shinn, eds., Krishna Consciousness in the West (Lewisburg: Bucknell University Press, 1989).
Arjun Appadurai, “Disjuncture and Difference in the Global Cultural Economy,”Theory, Culture & Society7 (1990): 295–310; Thomas A. Tweed, Crossing and Dwelling: A Theory of Religion (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2006).
Jukka Hintikka et al., “Religious Attendance and Life Satisfaction in the Finnish General Population,”Journal of Psychology & Theology29 (2001): 160. A 2003 study revealed nearly identical numbers: Kimmo Kääriäinen, Kati Niemelä, and Kimmo Ketola, Religion in Finland: Decline, Change and Transformation in Finnish Religiosity (Tampere, Finland: Church Research Institute, 2005), 116.
Martti Junnonaho, “On Religious Otherness in Finnish Discourse,” in Beyond the Mainstream: The Emergence of Religious Pluralism in Finland Estonia and Russia, ed. Jeffrey Kaplan (Helsinki: Finnish Literature Society, 2000), 193.