One Foot in Helsinki, One Foot in Mayapur: iskcon Finland as a Glocal European Religion

in Journal of Religion in Europe
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

iskcon is traditionally studied as a new religious movement (nrm) or an instance of diasporic Hinduism. I argue here that an examination of the Finnish branch of iskcon can be conceptualized as a case of a glocalized (global-local) religious movement wherein members have created amalgamated identities straddling the borders between nation states and cultures. Members have created a hybrid religious community appealing to both native-born Finns seeking to challenge and redefine the notion of Finnishness and Europeanness, and Indian immigrants seeking to bridge the boundaries between their new Finnish social-religious context and their Indian social-religious heritage. It offers a powerful example of the way in which members of a religious community have utilized their religious identity to situate themselves within the contemporary context of a secularized neoliberal European state.

Sections

References

AppaduraiArjun, “Disjuncture and Difference in the Global Cultural Economy,” Theory, Culture & Society 7 (1990): 295310.

BromleyDavid G., and ShinnLarry D., eds. Krishna Consciousness in the West. Lewisburg: Bucknell University Press, 1989.

BrooksCharles R.A Unique Conjecture: The Incorporation of iskcon in Vrindaban.” In Krishna Consciousness in the West, ed. Bromley and Shinn, 165187.

BrooMåns. “ iskcon and South Asian Hindus in Finland: Strategies for Integration,” Finnish Journal of Ethnicity and Migration 5 (2010): 3338.

BruceSteve. Religion in the Modern World: From Cathedrals to Cults. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.

BryantEdwin, and EkstrandMaria, eds. The Hare Krishna Movement: The Postcharismatic Fate of a Religious Transplant. New York: Columbia University Press, 2004.

Church Research Institute. Community, Participation, and Faith: Contemporary Challenges of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland. Tampere: Church Research Institute, 2013.

GauthierFrançois, MartikainenTuomas, and WoodheadLinda. “Introduction: Religion in Market Society.” In Religion in the Neoliberal Age: Political Economy and Modes of Governance, edited by MartikainenTuomas and GauthierFrançois. Farnham, U.K.: Ashgate, 2013, 120.

HeinoH., SalonenK. & RusamaJ. Response to Recession: The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland 1992–1995. Tampere: The Research Institute of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland, 1997.

HintikkaJukka. “Religious Attendance and Life Satisfaction in the Finnish General Population.” Journal of Psychology & Theology 29, no. 2 (2001): 15864.

HolmNils G.Religion in Finland the Scandinavian Model.” Social Compass 28 (1991): 915.

International Society for Krishna Consciousness. “Centers Around the World.” http://files.krishna.com/directory/tiwad.pdf. Accessed 19 August 2013.

JunnonahoMartti. “On Religious Otherness in Finnish Discourse.” In Beyond the Mainstream: The Emergence of Religious Pluralism in Finland Estonia and Russia, edited by KaplanJeffrey. Helsinki: Finnish Literature Society, 2000, 191200.

KääriäinenKimmo, NiemeläKati, and KetolaKimmo. Religion in Finland: Decline, Change and Transformation in Finnish Religiosity. Tampere, Finland: Church Research Institute, 2005.

KetolaKimmo. An Indian Guru and His Western Disciples. Representation and Communication of Charisma in the Hare Krishna Movement. Helsinki: Yliopistopaino, 2002.

LeeLois. “Research Note: Talking about a Revolution: Terminology for the New Field of Non-religion Studies.” Journal of Contemporary Religion 27 no. 1: 129139.

MobergMarcus, GranholmKennet, and NynäsPeter. “Trajectories of Post-Secular Complexity: An Introduction.” In Post-Secular Society, edited by NynasPeter, LassanderMika, and UtriainenTerhi. London: Transaction, 2014, 126.

NynäsPeter, IllmanRuth, and MartikainenTuomas. “Rethinking the Place of Religion in Finland.” In On the Outskirts of ‘the Church’: Diversities, Fluidities and New Spaces of Religion in Finland, edited by NynäsPeter, IllmanRuth, and MartikainenTuomas. Zürich: LIT Verlag, 2015, 1128.

RochfordE. Burke, Jr. Hare Krishna Transformed. New York: New York University Press, 2007.

SeppänenPaavo. “Finland.” In Western Religion: A Country by Country Sociological Inquiry, edited by MolHans. The Hague: Mouton, 1972, 14373.

Statistics Finland. 2012 Statistics. http://www.stat.fi/til/index_en.html. Accessed 19 August 2013.

TweedThomas A. Crossing and Dwelling: A Theory of Religion. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2006.

2

E. Burke Rochford Jr., Hare Krishna Transformed (New York: New York University Press, 2007); David G. Bromley and Larry D. Shinn, eds., Krishna Consciousness in the West (Lewisburg: Bucknell University Press, 1989).

9

Bryant and Ekstrand, The Hare Krishna Movement, 10.

11

Author Fieldnotes, 28 August 2012.

16

Arjun Appadurai, “Disjuncture and Difference in the Global Cultural Economy,” Theory, Culture & Society 7 (1990): 295–310; Thomas A. Tweed, Crossing and Dwelling: A Theory of Religion (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2006).

19

Steve Bruce, Religion in the Modern World: From Cathedrals to Cults (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996), 26.

20

Paavo Seppänen, “Finland,” in Western Religion: A Country by Country Sociological Inquiry, ed. Hans Mol (The Hague: Mouton, 1972), 157.

22

Jukka Hintikka et al., “Religious Attendance and Life Satisfaction in the Finnish General Population,” Journal of Psychology & Theology 29 (2001): 160. A 2003 study revealed nearly identical numbers: Kimmo Kääriäinen, Kati Niemelä, and Kimmo Ketola, Religion in Finland: Decline, Change and Transformation in Finnish Religiosity (Tampere, Finland: Church Research Institute, 2005), 116.

23

Church Research Institute, Community, Participation, and Faith: Contemporary Challenges of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland (Tampere: Church Research Institute, 2013), 41.

24

Nils G. Holm, “Religion in Finland the Scandinavian Model,” Social Compass 28 (1991): 13.

25

Martti Junnonaho, “On Religious Otherness in Finnish Discourse,” in Beyond the Mainstream: The Emergence of Religious Pluralism in Finland Estonia and Russia, ed. Jeffrey Kaplan (Helsinki: Finnish Literature Society, 2000), 193.

26

Church Research Institute, Community, Participation, and Faith, 31.

27

Hintikka et al., “Religious Attendance and Life Satisfaction,” 162.

29

Lois Lee, “Research Note: Talking about a Revolution: Terminology for the New Field of Non-religion Studies,” Journal of Contemporary Religion 27:1, 135–6.

37

Junnonaho, “On Religious Otherness in Finnish Discourse,” 193.

Figures

  • The main altar of the Helsinki Temple.

    View in gallery
  • ISKCON devotees hold a public event in a park in Turku, Finland.

    View in gallery
  • Typical Sunday worship at the Helsinki Temple.

    View in gallery
  • Attendance during a festival, when South Asian transnationals outnumber native Finnish devotees.

    View in gallery

Information

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 11 11 1
Full Text Views 2 2 2
PDF Downloads 0 0 0
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0