The Yasaviyya in the Nasāʾim al-maḥabba of ʿAlī Shīr Navāʾī: A Case Study in Central Asian Hagiography

in Journal of Sufi Studies
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The Timurid statesman and poet ʿAlī Shīr Navāʾī (d. 906/1501) was the author of the first biographical dictionary (taẕkira) of Sufi saints to be written in the Central Asian dialect of Chaghatay Turkic. Although he started it as a translation of Nafaḥāt al-uns by Jāmī, he expanded upon that work by including many saints from Khurasan, India, and Turkestan. Of particular note are his entries for a clutch of Sufis associated with Aḥmad Yasavī, whom he described as the mashāʾīkh-i turk—the Turkish shaykhs. This was the first substantial overview of these saints in hagiographical literature, even though they had been active since the seventh/thirteenth century. The problem for historians is that Navāʾī supplies little by way of chronology for these saints, nor does he provide a clear indication of his sources. The problem for scholars of Sufism is that he provides little information on issues of doctrine or praxis. What is significant about this survey is its emphasis on the importance of hereditary descent among the shaykhs, suggesting that what was key to uniting them was not an institutional framework, but one of common genealogies from one of the immediate successors of Aḥmad Yasavī.

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References

1

See the comments of e.g. Edith Grossman, Why Translation Matters (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2010), 10.

2

Chase F. Robinson, Islamic Historiography (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 68.

3

Ibid., 70.

13

Hamidkhon Islomiy, “‘Nasoyimul muhabat’ning o’rganilishi, tarkibi va uning manba hamda ‘Nafahatul uns’dan farqi,” in Abdurahmon Jomiy (575 Yilliga Bag’ishlanadi), ed. Aziz Qayumov (Tashkent: O’zbekiston FA H.S. Sulaymonov nomidagi qo’lyozmalar instituti, 1997), 88–99.

14

Ibid., 92–3.

18

Robinson, Islamic Historiography, 62.

19

James Wood, How Fiction Works (New York: Farrar, Strauss and Giroux, 2008), 128.

20

Devin DeWeese, “Yasavī Šayḥs in the Timurid Era: Notes on the Social and Political Role of Communal Sufi Affiliations in the 14th and 15th Centuries,” Oriente Moderno 15.2, n.s. (1996): 192.

21

Ivanow, “Sources,” 385; and idem, “More on the Sources of Jami’s Nafahat,” jpasb 19, n.s. (1923): 299–303.

23

Devin DeWeese, “Yasavian Legends on the Islamization of Turkestan,” in Aspects of Altaic Civilization III: Proceedings of the Thirtieth Meeting of the Permanent International Altaistic Conference, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, June 19–25, 1987, ed. Denis Sinor, Uralic and Altaic Series 145 (Bloomington, Ind.: Research Institute for Inner Asian Studies, Indiana University, 1990), 5–6.

25

Ibid., 388.

26

Ibid., 438.

27

Navoiy, Nasoyimul muhabbat, 199–200.

28

Ibid., 200–1.

29

Ibid., 326–7.

31

Navoiy, Nasoyimul muhabbat, 327–9.

32

Ibid., 331–3.

33

Shamsiddin S. Kamoliddin, “K biografii Akhmada Yugnaki,” O’zbekistonda ijtimoy fanlar no. 1–2 (2005): 93–109.

38

Jāmī, Nafaḥāt, 382.

40

Navoiy, Nasoyimul muhabbat, 195.

41

Ibid., 326–7.

42

Ibid., 199–200.

43

Ibid., 200.

44

Ibid., 326; Hossein Ziai, “al-Suhrawardī, Shihāb al-Dīn Yaḥyā,” in The Encyclopaedia of Islam, New Edition (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1954–2004).

50

Navoiy, Nasoyimul muhabbat, 328.

51

Ibid., 328.

52

Ibid., 332.

53

Ibid., 328.

56

Navoiy, Nasoyimul muhabbat, 331.

57

Ibid., 332.

58

Ibid., 328.

61

Navoiy, Nasoyimul muhabbat, 332.

62

Wood, How Fiction Works, 230.

63

Navoiy, Nasoyimul muhabbat, 328–9.

64

Ibid., 327.

65

Ibid., 332.

66

Ibid., 332.

67

Ibid., 333.

75

Atoyi, Jondan aziz janona, 52.

76

Ibid., 189.

77

Ibid., 281.

78

E.R. Rustamov, Uzbekskaya poeziya v pervoy plovine XV veka (Moscow: Izd-vo Vostochnoy Literatury, 1963), 116; and Atoyi, Jondan aziz janona, 145.

80

DeWeese, An “Uvaysī” Sufi in Timurid Mawarannahr, 22–4.

82

Ibid., 198.

83

Shaykh, Maqāmāt-i Khwāja Aḥrār, 35.

85

Kāshifī, Rashaḥāt, 1:31.

89

Kāshifī, Rashaḥāt, 1:31.

95

Ibid., 493–4.

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