1 1Kevin P. Gallagher is assistant professor of international relations at Boston University (firstname.lastname@example.org). Francisco Aguayo Ayala is a research associate at the Program for Science, Technology and Development at El Colcgio de Mexico, Mexico (email@example.com).
2 2Kevin P. Gallagher is assistant professor of international relations at Boston University (firstname.lastname@example.org). Francisco Aguayo Ayala is a research associate at the Program for Science, Technology and Development at El Colcgio de Mexico, Mexico (email@example.com).
1 Some of the empirical work conducted for this paper was supported by the Trade Knowledge Network. We also wish to thank Alisa Dicaprio for her assistance in conducting archival research.
1 Note by the Secretariat, Subsidies and Countervailing Measures, April 28, 1987 (mtn.gng/nglO/w/4). 4 Note by the Secretariat, Problems in the Area of Subsidies and Countervailing Measures, March 17, 1987 (mtn.gng/ngl0/w/3). I Note by the Secretariat, Subsidies and Countervailing Measures, April 28, 1987 (mtn.gng/ngl0/w/4). 6 Communication from the United States, March 16, 1987 (mtn.gng/ngl0/w/1).
I Elements of the Framework for Negotiations, Submission by the United States, November 22, 1989 (mtn.gng/ngl0/w29). I Elements of the Negotiating Framework, Communication from Switzerland, September 13, 1989 (mtn.gng.ngl0/w/26). s) Communication from Japan, August 12, 1987 (mtn.gng/nglO/w/8). 10 Proposals on Behalf of the Least Developed Countries, Communication from Bangladesh, November 13, 1989 (mtn.gng/ng10/w/28). tt Communication from Egypt, November 30, 1987 (mtn.gng/nglO/w/14). 12 Communication from Colombia, November 9, 1987 (mtn.gng/nglO/w/13). 13 Communication from the Republic of Korea, June 1, 1987 (mtn.gng/nglO/w/5). �t Communication from Brazil, November 10, 1988 (mtn.gng/nglO/w/24).
y Less than 75 per cent of industrial research or less than 50 per cent of the costs of pre-competitive development activity.
1(1 According to Article 87(1) of the European Community Treaty, state aid excludes: (a) subsidies channeled to recipients which are not enterprises, (b) general tax measures, quotas and public procurement, (c) community funds and instruments (like the Common Agricultural Policy funds); (d) aid granted by supranational organisations (like the European Space Agency), and (e) Defense and public works.
17 Paragraph 12 to which this refers focuses on implementation-related issues and concerns, as follows: 12. We attach the utmost importance to the implementation-related issues and concerns raised by members and arc determined to find appropriate solutions to them. In this connection, and having regard to the General Council Decisions of 3 May and 15 December 2000, we further adopt the Decision on Implementation-Related Issues and Concerns in document WT/MIN(01)/17 to address a number of implementation problems faced by members. We agree that negotiations on outstanding implementation issues shall be an integral part of the Work Programme we are establishing, and that agreements reached at an early stage in these negotiations shall be treated in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 47 below. In this regard, we shall proceed as follows: (a) where we provide a specific negotiating mandate in this declaration, the relevant implementation issues shall be addressed under that mandate; (b) the other outstanding implementation issues shall be addressed as a matter of priority by the relevant W ro bodies, which shall report to the Trade Negotiations Committee, established under paragraph 46 below, by the end of 2002 for appropriate action.
Ackerman, Frank, 2005, 'The Shrinking Gains from Trade: A Critical Assessment of Doha Round Projections', Tufts University Global Development and Environment Institute, Working Paper 05-01.
Amsden, Alice, 2005, 'Promoting Industry under WTO Law', in Kevin P. Gallagher (ed.), 2005, PuttingDevelopment First:The IntportanceofPolicySpace in the WTO and IFIS, London: Zed Books, pp. 221-2.
Amsden, Alice, 2001, TheRiseof theRest:Challenges to theWest fromLateIndustrializingCountries, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Amsden, Alice and Chu, Wan-wen, 2003, BeyondLateDevelopment Taiwan's Upgrading Policies, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Anderson, Sarah, and Cavanagh, John, 2004, Lessons ofEuropean Integrationfor the Americas, Washington: Institute for Policy Studies.
Arrow, K., 1962, "Economic Welfare and the Allocation of Resources for Invention', in: R. Nelson (ed.), TheRateandDirectionof Inventive Activity, Princeton: Princeton University Press, pp. 609-625.
Arrow, Kenneth J., 1962, 'The Economic Implications of Learning by Doing', Reviewof Economic Studies, Vol. 29, No. 3, June 1962, pp. 155-173.
Baumol and Oates, 1988, The TheoryofEnvironmental Policy', Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bence and Smith, 1989, 'Subsidies and the Trade Laws: The Canada-US Dimension', International Economic Issues, May-June 1989.
Bora, B. P., J. Lloyd and M. Pangetsu, 1999, 'Industrial Policy and the WTO', WTO/World Bank Conference on Developing Countries in a Millennium Round, Geneva: WTO Secretariat.
Calo, Muriel and Timothy A. Wise (2005). Revaluing PeasantCoffee Production: Organic andFairTradeMarketsinMexico. Global Development and Environment Institute, Tufts University.
Council on Foreign Relations, 2005, Building a North American Community: AReportof theIndependentTaskForce ontheFutureof North America. New York: Council on Foreign Relations.
David, P., 1975, Technical Choice, Innovation andEconomicGrowth, New York: Cambridge University Press.
Department of Finance, 2004, Subsidies and CountervailingMeasuresInformationPaper, Ottawa: Government of Canada, http://www.fin.gc.ca/activity/pubs/Sub_e.html.
Eliasson, Gunnar, 1998, 'Competence Blocs and the Industrial Policy in the Knowledge-Based Economy', Science Technology IndustryReview, Vol. 1, No. 22, Paris: OECD, p. 228.
Ernst, D, a. L. K. (2001). Global production networks, knowledge diffusion, and local capability formation. A conceptual framework, East West Center Working Papers, Economics Scries, No. 19, May.
European Commission, 2005, 'State Aid Scoreboard-Spring 2005 Update', Brussels: European Commission.
European Commission, 2002, 'Indicative Figures on the Distribution of Direct Farm Aid', Brussels: European Commission, 1 October 2002.
European Community Framework Programme, 2002, 'The Sixth Framework Programme in Brief, Brussels: European Community Framework Programme.
Evans, Peter, 1995, Embedded Autonomy: States andIndustrialTransformation, Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Farman, J. C., B. G. Gardiner and J. D. Shanklin, 1985, 'Large Losses of Total Ozone in Antarctica Reveal Seasonal ClOx/NOx Interaction', Nature, No. 315, pp.207-210.
Gallagher, Kelly Sims, Ambuj Sagar, Diane Segal, Paul de Sa, and John P. Holdren, 2008, 'U.S. Government Investments in Energy Innovation Database', Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs.
Gallagher, Kevin P. (ed,), 2005, PuttingDevelopmentFirst:The ImportanceofPolicySpace in the WTO andIFI, London: Zed Books.
Gallagher, Kevin and Zarsky, Lyuba, 2004, Sustainable IndustrialDevelopment?The Performance ofMexico'sFDI-LedDevelopmentStrategy, Global Development and Environment Institute, Tufts University.
Hansen, Jφrgen Drud, Camilla Jensen, and Erik Strφjer Madsen, 2001, Green Subsidies andLearning-byDoingin theWindmillIndustry, Denmark: Institute of Economics, Aarhus School of Business.
Hoekman, Bernard and Michel Kostecki, (2001). ThePolitical Economyof theWorldTrading System: TheWTOandBeyond. London: Oxford University Press.
Kahn, Matthew E. and Yoshino, Yutaka, 2004, 'Testing for Pollution Havens Inside and Outside of
Kline, S. and Rosenberg, N., 1986, 'An Overview of Innovation', in N. Rosenberg and R. Landau, (eds.), ThePositiveSum Society:HarnessingTechnology for EconomicGrowth, Washington: National Academy Press.
Kowalck, C., 2002, 'Reforming Tariffs and Subsidies in International Trade', Pacific EconomicReview, Vol. 7, No. 2.
Kowalcyk, C., 1989, 'Trade Negotiations and World Welfare', AmericanEconomic Review, Vol. 79, pp. 552-9.
Krugman, P., 1986, 'Introduction: New Thinking about Trade Policy', in P. Krugman (ed.), Strategic TradePolicyand the New InternationalEconomics, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Lipsey, R.G. and Lancaster, Kelvin, 1956, "The General Theory of Second Best', ReviewofEconomicStudies, Vol. 24, pp. 11-32.
Lundvall, Bengt-Ake, 1988, 'Innovation as an Interactive Process: From User-Producer Interaction to the National System of Innovation', in Dosi, G. et al, Technical Change andEconomicTheory, London and New York: Pinter Publishers.
March, J. G. and Simon, H., 1958, Organizations, New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Nadal, A., 2003, 'Natural Protected Areas and Social Marginalization in Mexico', CEESP OccasionalPapers, Gland, Switzerland: The World Conservation Union.
Nelson, R., 1959, 'The Simple Economics of Basic Scientific Research', Journalof PoliticalEconomy, June, pp. 297-306.
Nelson, R., 1999, The SourcesofEconomicGrowth. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Pal, Parrthapratim and Das Gupta, Mitalie, 2004, Subsidies and CountervailingMeasuresin the WTO, International Development Economics Associates, www.networkideas.org.
Panayotou, Theodore, 1998, Instruments of Change:MotivatingandFinancingSustainableDevelopment. London: Earthscan.
Pretschker, Udo, 2004, 'Subsidies and Development in OECD Countries', paper delivered at the conference "Reining in Competition for Capital", the University of Minnesota's Humphrey Institute, February 2004. http://www.hhh.umn.edu/img/assets/6158/pretschker_paper.pdf.
Raghavan, Chakravarthi, 1999, 'Subsidies Used by North to Lapse end 1999?' Third World Network.
Ritchie, M., Murphy, S., Lake, A. B., 2003, U.S.DumpingonWorldAgriculturalMarkets:Can TradeRulesHelpFarmers? Minneapolis, MN: Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy.
Rodrik, Dani, 2005, IndustrialPolicyfor the 21st Century, Vienna: United Nations Industrial Development Organization.
Rosa, Herman, Susan Kandel, and Leopoldo Dimas, 2004, 'Compensation for Environmental Services in Rural Communities: Lessons from the Americas', PERIWorkingPaperSeries, No. 96, Amherst: Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts.
Simon, H., 1959, 'Theories of Decision-Making in Economics and Behavioral Science', AmericanEconomic Review, Vol. 49.
Stiglitz, J. and Charlton, A., 2004, The Development Round of TradeNegotiationsinthe Aftermath of Cancun, The Commonwealth. Report prepared for the Commonwealth Secretariat. http://www.thecommonwealth.org/Templates/Internal.asp?NodeID-38180 (accessed July 7, 2004).
Trade Policy Monitor, 2000, 'USTR/Department of Commerce Subsidies Enforcement Report to Congress', 8 April 2000.
Trebilcock, and Robert Howse (2005). TheRegulationof International Trade. London: Routledge.
UNDP, 2001, Human Development Report: MakingNew TechnologiesWork forHuman Development, New York: United Nations Development Program.
UNDP, 2003, MakingTradeWorkforPeople, United Nations Development Program, London: Earthscan.