Subsidizing Sustainable Development under the WTO 1

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Subsidizing Sustainable Development under the WTO 1

in The Journal of World Investment & Trade


1 Some of the empirical work conducted for this paper was supported by the Trade Knowledge Network. We also wish to thank Alisa Dicaprio for her assistance in conducting archival research.

1 Note by the Secretariat, Subsidies and Countervailing Measures, April 28, 1987 (mtn.gng/nglO/w/4). 4 Note by the Secretariat, Problems in the Area of Subsidies and Countervailing Measures, March 17, 1987 (mtn.gng/ngl0/w/3). I Note by the Secretariat, Subsidies and Countervailing Measures, April 28, 1987 (mtn.gng/ngl0/w/4). 6 Communication from the United States, March 16, 1987 (mtn.gng/ngl0/w/1).

I Elements of the Framework for Negotiations, Submission by the United States, November 22, 1989 (mtn.gng/ngl0/w29). I Elements of the Negotiating Framework, Communication from Switzerland, September 13, 1989 (mtn.gng.ngl0/w/26). s) Communication from Japan, August 12, 1987 (mtn.gng/nglO/w/8). 10 Proposals on Behalf of the Least Developed Countries, Communication from Bangladesh, November 13, 1989 (mtn.gng/ng10/w/28). tt Communication from Egypt, November 30, 1987 (mtn.gng/nglO/w/14). 12 Communication from Colombia, November 9, 1987 (mtn.gng/nglO/w/13). 13 Communication from the Republic of Korea, June 1, 1987 (mtn.gng/nglO/w/5). �t Communication from Brazil, November 10, 1988 (mtn.gng/nglO/w/24).

y Less than 75 per cent of industrial research or less than 50 per cent of the costs of pre-competitive development activity.

1(1 According to Article 87(1) of the European Community Treaty, state aid excludes: (a) subsidies channeled to recipients which are not enterprises, (b) general tax measures, quotas and public procurement, (c) community funds and instruments (like the Common Agricultural Policy funds); (d) aid granted by supranational organisations (like the European Space Agency), and (e) Defense and public works.

17 Paragraph 12 to which this refers focuses on implementation-related issues and concerns, as follows: 12. We attach the utmost importance to the implementation-related issues and concerns raised by members and arc determined to find appropriate solutions to them. In this connection, and having regard to the General Council Decisions of 3 May and 15 December 2000, we further adopt the Decision on Implementation-Related Issues and Concerns in document WT/MIN(01)/17 to address a number of implementation problems faced by members. We agree that negotiations on outstanding implementation issues shall be an integral part of the Work Programme we are establishing, and that agreements reached at an early stage in these negotiations shall be treated in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 47 below. In this regard, we shall proceed as follows: (a) where we provide a specific negotiating mandate in this declaration, the relevant implementation issues shall be addressed under that mandate; (b) the other outstanding implementation issues shall be addressed as a matter of priority by the relevant W ro bodies, which shall report to the Trade Negotiations Committee, established under paragraph 46 below, by the end of 2002 for appropriate action.

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