Implications of International Investment Law for Tobacco Flavouring Regulation

in The Journal of World Investment & Trade
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

The Journal of World Investment & Trade

Law • Economics • Politics

References

AgreementbetweentheSurissConfederationandtheEasternRepublicofUniguayRelating tothePromotionandReciprocalProtectionof Investments (signed 7 October 1988, entered into force 22 April 1991). 2 Fm Holding SA (Switze·rland), Philip Morris Products SA (Switzerland) and Abal Hermanos SA (Umguay) v. Oriental Republic of Uruguay, Icam Case No. Amti/10/7 (request for institution of proceedings registered 26 March 2010). See International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes, List of Pending Cases, available at http://icsid. worldbank.org/ICSID/FrontServlet?requestType=GenCaseDtIsRH&actionVal=ListPending (last accessed 5 December 2010); Luke Peterson, 'Philip Morris Files First-Known Investment Treaty Claim against Tobacco Regulations' (3 March 2010) Investment Arbitration Reporter, Todd Weiler, `Philip Morris vs Uruguay: An Analysis of 'Tobacco Control Measures in the Context of International Investment LAw' (28 July 2010), available at http://www.smoke- free.ca/eng�home/2010/PMIvsUruguay/Opinion-PMI-Uruguay.pdf (last accessed 5 December 2010). 3 Sec, eg, WHO Press Release, 'Award Winners Named for World No Tobacco Day in the Americas' (30 May 2006), available at http://www.paho.org/english/dd/pin/pr060530a.htm (last accessed 5 December 2010). ^ Cf Rory Carroll, 'Uruguay Bows to Pressure over Anti-Smoking Law Amendments' (27 July 2010) T7ie Guardian. s Peterson, above n 2; Michael Sandelson, 'Philip Morris to Sue Norwegian State' (9 March 2010) The Foreigner. 6 W'ro, United States-Measures Affecting the Production and Sale of Clove Cigarettes: Request far Consultations by Indonesia, WT/DS406/1, G/L/917, G/SPS/Get�/1015, G/TBT/D/38 (14 April 2010); WTO, United States- Measures Affecting the Production and Sale of Clove Cigarettes: Request for the Establishment of a Panel by Indonesia, WT/DS406/2 (11 June 2010); 'DSB Establishes Panel to Hear Indonesian Challenge of US Clove Cigarette Ban' (2010) 28(29) Inside US Trade. See, eg, WTO Committee on Technical Barriers to Trade, Minutes of the Meeting of 5-6 November 2009: Note by the Secretariat, G/TuT'/M/49 (22 December 2009) [8]-[16]; WTO Cotnmittee on Technical Barriers to Trade,

TheEffectofCanada'sTobaccoActonMalawi, G/Tbt/W/329 (24 March 2010); WTO, 'Tobacco and Alcohol Technical Barriers among Members' Trade Concerns', News Item (24-5 March 2010), available at lmp:1 Iwww.wto.org/english/news_e/newsl0_e/tbt_24marl0_e.htrn (last accessed 5 December 2010); WTO Committee on Technical Barriers to Trade, Tlie Effects of Canada's "Tobacco Act" on Kenya, G/THT IW 1330 (16 June 2010); WTO Committee on Technical Barriers to Trade, The Effects of Canada's "'Tobacco Act" on Uganda, G/Tu'r/W/331 (23 June 2010); WTO Committee on Technical Barriers to Trade, Minutes of the Meeting o(23-4 June 2010: Note by the Secretariat, G/TBT/M/51 (1 October 2010) [181]-[226]. See also Rob Cunningham, 'Canada: Ban on Flavours' (2010) 19(1) Tobacco Control 4. 1 Signed 12 December 1992, entered into force 1 January 1994. 1 See generally Stephan Schill, The Multilateralization of International Investment Law (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009); Jeswald Salacuse, 'The Emerging Global Regime for Investment' (2010) 51 Harvard International LawJournal427. 10 2302 United Nations Treaty Series 166 (adopted 21 May 2003, entered into force 27 February 2005).

11 The United States signed the Fc:TC on 10 May 2004 but has not ratified the treaty. See WHO, 'Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control' http://www.who.int/fctc/signatories-parties/en/index.html (last accessed 5 December 2010). 12 See above n 6 and corresponding text. U Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (as amended by the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act 2009), s 907(a)(1)(A). r4 Sec, eg, Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration, 'Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting' (2010) 75(96) Federal Register 28027. 15 'ups Rejects Indonesia's First WTO Panel Request On Clove Cigarette Ban' (2010) 28(25) Inside IIS Trade. "• 'DSB Establishes Panel', above n 6.

17 An Act Concenting Certnin Flavored Cigarette and Flavored Cigars and Hanl Snuff(2007) Pub L c 467, §1560-D. 18 New Jersey Permanent Statutes, Title 2A: 170-51.6. �9 Administrative Code of the City of New York (as amended by the Local Laws of the City of New Yorkfor the year 2009, No. 69), 517-715. 20 Canada signed the FCTC on 15 July 2003 and ratified it on 26 November 2004, before its entry into force: WHO, 'Parties to the Fe'rc', above n 11. 21 See above n 7 and corresponding text. 22 Tobacco Act (as amended by the Cracking Dourvi on Tobacco Marketing Aimed at Youth Act 2009), ss 5.1-5.2. zs Smoke-Free Ontario Art (as amended by 2010, c 1, Sch 27), s 6.1; Ontario Regulation 48/06 (as amended by Reg 237/10), s 11.1; Tobacco Sales Act (New Brunswick) (as amended 2009), s 4.1; Tobacco Control Act (Saskatchewan) (as amended 2010), ss 5.1-5.2. z4 An Act to amend the Tobacco Act Crgarillos, Cigars and Pipe Ibbacco, Bill C-348 (first reading 26 March 2009). z5 See above nn 6-7. 26 Roger Quarles, 'Administration Must Confront Canada on Burley Tobacco Ban' (16 November 2009) The Hill. 27 WTO Committee on Technical Barriers to Trade, Malawi, above n 7, [4]. ZA British American Tobacco, Cigarette Ingredients, available at http://www.bat.com/group/sites/uk 3mnfen. nsf/vwPagesWebLive/D052AMK5?opendocument&SKN=1 (last accessed 5 December 2010). z9 WTO Committee on Technical Barriers to Trade, Malawi, above n 7, [4]. 3o Cunningham, above n 7, 5; Quarles, above n 26. 3� WTO Committee on Technical Barriers to Trade, Malawi, above n 7, [4]. 3z Cunningham, above n 7, 4; Paul Smalera, 'Cool, Refreshing Legislation for Philip Morris', The Big Money (8 June 2009). 33 WTO, United States-Clove Cigarettes: Panel Request, above n 6.

34TobarroArt1927 (Australian Capital Territory), s 21; Public Health (Tobacco) Act 2008 (New South Wales), s 29; Tobacco Products Regulation Act 1997 (South Australia), s 34A; Public Health Act 1997 (Tasmania), ss 68A(c)-(e); Tobacco Act 1987 (Victoria), s 150. 35 Tobarco Products Regulation (Prohibited Tobacco Products) Notice 2006 (South Australian Government Gazette, No 46, 10 August 2006) 2640; Tobaao (Prohibited Smoking Products) Declaration 2009 (No. 1) (Notifiable Instrument NI2009-53 made under the tobacco Act 1927 (Australian Capital Territory), 4 February 2009); Notice under Section 29 oftlie Public Health (Tobacco) Act 2008 (New South Wales Government Gazette, No 11, 15 January 2010) 136; Order under Sertion 15N(1) of the Tobacco Act 1987 Banning the Sale of Tobacco Products (Victorian Government Gazette, No G25, 24 June 2010) 1335. je Hygiene Norm of 2009, Maximum Amount of Hazardous Substances Permitted in Tobacco Products. Code de la Sante Publique, art L 3511-2 (as amended by Decree 2009-1764). 38 Lithuania signed the FCTC on 23 September 2003 and ratified it on 16 December 2004. France signed the FCTC on 16 June 2003 and approved it on 19 October 2004. Australia signed the FCTC on 5 December 2003 and ratified it on 27 October 2004. See WHO, 'Parties to the Fen:', above n 11. 3� Article 10 of the FCTC concerns parties' regulations requiring disclosure to governmental authorities of information about the contents and emissions of tobacco products and is not directly relevant to this article.

40 FCTC Conference of the Parties, Elaboration of Guidelines for Implementation of Articles 9 and 10, Decision FCTl:/Cop3(9) (4th plen mtg, 22 November 2008) [1(1)], as contained in FCTC Conference of the Parties, Decisions, F(:Tc/Cop/3/Div/3 (16 February 2009) 17, 18. 41 Burley Tobacco Growers Cooperative Association Press Release, 'Framework Convention on Tobacco Control's Proposed Regulatory Guidelines Could Lead to Global Ban on American-Style Cigarettes' (25 May 2010). Sec also Louis Antoine, 'European Tobacco Growers Protest against New WHO Directive' Europolitirs (21 June 2010). 42 Sec, eg, Karishma Vaswani, 'Asia Tobacco Farmers Fight Flavoured Cigarette Ban Call' BBC Nems: Jakarta (21 June 2010); Arti Ekawati, 'Tobacco Growers Meet to Plot Strategy Against WHO Flavor Ban' Jakarta Globe (20 June 2010). �3 FCTC Conference of the Parties, Decision: Punta del Este Dedaratiorr on the Implementation of the Wi-to Framework Cunvention on Tobacco Control, FCTC/C()p4(5) (19 November 2010) [2]. °4 FCTC Conference of the Parties, Report of Committee A (Draft), FCTC/Cop/4/28 (20 November 2010) 10. This recommendation was adopted by the Conference of the Parties on 20 November 2010 (written decision not publicly available at the time of writing). 45 FCTC Conference of the Parties, Draft Guidelines for the Implementation of Articles 9 and 10 o_f the Wtto Frarnework Convention on Tobacco Control, Fc:re/CoP/4/6 Rev.l (18 November 2010) 11-14.

a" See, eg, Ronrpetrol Group NV v. Romania, Decision on Preliminary Objections, Icsil) Case No. Arb/06/3 (18 April 2008) [83] (concerning Agreentent between the Kingdom of Netherlands and tire Republic of Rornania off Encouragement and Reriprornl Protection of Investments (signed 19 April 1994, entered into force 1 February 1995) art 25(2)(b)). 47 See, eg, Waste Manayement Inc v. Mexico, Award, ICSID Case No. Aan(AF)/00/3 (30 April 2004) [82], [85] (concerning NAFTA, arts 1101(1), 1139) ("Waste Management, Award'). r" Sec, eg, Champion Trading Company v. Egypt, Decision on Jurisdiction, Icsii) Case No. Aiu/02/9 (21 October 2003) [661-[72] (concerning Treaty Between the United States and Egypt-Concerning the Reciprocal Encouragement and Protection of Investments (signed 29 September 1982, entered into force 27 June 1992), art l(b)). 4" NAFTA, art 1102(1) (emphasis added). so NAFTA, art 1103(1) (emphasis added). 51 NAFTA, arts 1102(2), 1103(2). 52 See, eg, Canada h9odcl Brr 2004, arts 3(2), 4(2), available at http://ita.law.uvic.ca/documents/Canadian FIPA.pdf (last accessed 5 December 2010); US Model BIT 2004, arts 3(2), 4(2), available at http://ita.law.uvic.ca/ documents/USmodelbituov04.pdf (last accessed 5 December 2010). 5.1 See, eg, above n 52. 5r See, eg, Germany Model BIT 2008, art 3, available at http://ita.law.uvic.ca/documents/200�-GennanModel BIT.doc (last accessed 5 December 2010).

" See, eg, SD Myers Inc v. Canada, First Partial Award, ad IIOC-UNCITPAL Arbitration Rules (13 November 2000) [250] (`SD Myers, First Partial Award'); Parkerings-C:ompagniet AS v. Lithuania, Award on Jurisdiction and Merits, ICSID Case No. Atttt/05/8 (14 August 2007) [371J (`Parkerings-CompaQniet, Award on Jurisdiction and Merits'). Cf Occidental Exploration and Production Company v. Ecuador, Award, LCIA Case No. UN 3467 (4 July 2004) [173]; National Grid pic v. 4argentina, Award, ad hoc-Ur.ict7ttnL Arbitration Rules, Case 1:09-cv-00248-RBw (3 November 2008) [200]. 5fi See, eg, SD Myers, First Partial Award, [251]; Archer Daniels Midland Company and Tate & Lyle Ingredients America, Inc v. Mexico, Award, IC.SID Case No. Ans(AF)/04/05 (26 September 2007) [199]. [201], [204] ('Archer Daniels, Award'); Andrea Bjorklund, 'The National Treatment Obligation' in Katia Yannaca-Small (ed), Arbitration under International Investment Agreements: A Guide to the Key Issues (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010) 411, 422. 5� See, eg, Feldman Karpa v. Mexico, Award, ICSID Case No. AtZn(AF)/99/1 (16 December 2002) [169] (referring to NAFTA, art 1102); Pope & Talbot Inc v. Canada, Award on the Merits of Phase 2, ad hoc — UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules (10 April 2001) [79] (`Feldman Karpa, Award'); SD Myers, First Partial Award, [252] ('Pope & Talbot, Award on the Merits of Phase 2'). 5" SD Myers, First Partial Award, [252] (emphasis added). s9 Pope & 'I'albot, Award on the Merits of Phase 2, [421 (emphasis added); Archer Daniels, Award, [205J. so Todd Grierson-Wciler and Ian Laird, 'Standards of Treatment' in Peter Muchlinski, Federico Ortino and Christoph Schreuer (eds), The (Oxford Handbook of International Investment Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008) 259, 293; Federico Ortino, 'Non-Discriminatory Treatment in Investment Disputes' in Pierre-Marie Dupuy, Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann and Francesco Francioni (eds), Human Rights in International Investment Law and Arbitration (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009) 344, 358; Nicolas Diebold, 'Non-Discrimination and the Pillars of International Economic Law: Comparative Analysis and Building Coherency', Working Paper, Society of International Economic Law (30 June 2010) 11-12, available at http://papcrs.ssm.com/soI3/papers.cfin?abstract_id= 1632927 (last accessed 5 December 2010). bt See, eg, SD Myers, First Partial Award [250]; Bjorklund, above n 56, 422.

62 Pope & 1'albot, Award on the Merits of Phase 2, [78]. 63 See, eg, Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks, Addictiveness and Attractiveness of Tobacco Additives (Report for the European Commission, 12 November 2010) 46; 'Menthol Cigarettes Are More Addictive, New Research Finds', ScierueDaily (12 January 2009), available at http://www.scienccdaily.com/releases/2009/01/090110085918.htm (last accessed 5 December 2010), citing KK Gandhi et al, 'Lower Quit Rates among African American and Latino Menthol Cigarette Smokers at a Tobacco Treatment Clinic' (March 2009) 63(3) International Journal of Clinical Practice 360; WHO Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation, 'The Scientific Basis of Tobacco Product Regulation: Report of WHO Study Group' (2007) 945 WEto Technical Report Series 11, 26, 27, 35, 37; WHO, Monograph: /t� Knowledge on Regulating Tobacco Products (2001) 35. Sce, eg. Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks, above n 63, 50; Jennifer Kreslake et al., 'Tobacco Industry Control of Menthol in Cigarettes and Targeting of Adolescents and Young Adults' (September 2008) 98(9) Americatijourtial of Public Health 1685, 1685-6, 1688-9; WHO Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation, above n 63, 10, 11, 16, 18-19, 26; Who, Monograph, above n 63, 34.

'ó See, eg, NAFTA, art 1105(1). 66 See, eg, Agreement between tlre Governrnent of Australia and the Government (1fthe United Mexican States on the Promotion and Reciprocal Protection of Investments (signed 23 August 2005, entered into force 18 July 2007), art 4(1), Protocol; NAFTA Free Trade Commission, Notes of Interpretation oj'Certaiii Chapter 11 Provisions (31 July 2001). 6' UN tt Neer and Pauline Neer (USA) v. Llnited Mexican States (15 October 1926) IV Reports of International Arbitra¡ Awards 60, [4]. 68 Suez v. Argentina, Decision on Liability, ICSID Case No. Arm/03/17 (30 July 2010) [177]-[178] ('Suez, Decision on Liability'). (,9 See, eg, Pope & Talbot Inc v. Canada, Award on damages, ad hoc—UNC!TRAL Arbitration Rules (31 May 2002) [57]-[65j; Mondev International v. United States, Award, ICSID Case No. A2ts(AF)/99/2 (11 October 2002) [123]-[125] ('Mondev, Award'). Contra: Glamis Gold Ltd v. United States, Award, ad hoc-Ut.tetT0.AL Arbitration Rules (14 May 2009). 70 See, eg, CAM Gas Transmission Company v. Argentina, Award, ICSID Case No. AIU3/O1/8 (12 May 2005) [284] (`Cnfs Gas, Award'); Rumeli Telekorn AS and Telsim Mobil Telekomikasyon Hizrnetleri AS v. Kazakhstan, Award, ICSID Case No. AKrt/OS/16 (21 July 2008) [611] (`Reuneli Telekorn, Award'). See also the cases cited by Katia Yannaca-Small, 'Fair and Equitable Treatment Standard' in Katia Yannaca-Small (ed), Arbitration undor International Investment Agreeirietits: A Giiide to the Kc·y Issues (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010) 385, 392-3. " See, eg, Rumeli Telekom, Award, [609]-[610]. See also the general definition in 'I'jctjicas Medioambientales 7'f-cm� SA v. Mexiro, Award, ICSID Case No. ARB(AF)/00/2 (29 May 2003) [154] ("1ëwiCtls Medioambientales, Award'). 'z See, eg, Mondev, Award, [ 126J-[ 127�. 73 See, eg, Loewen Grotip Incand Loewen v. United States, Award, ICSID Case No. Arb(AF)/98/3 (25 June 2003) [132]. 'a See, eg, Saluka Investments BIT v. Czech Republic, Partial Award, PCA—UNOiRAL Arbitration Rules (17 March 2006) [310], [407] ('Saluka, Partial Award').

7, See, eg, Téwieas Medioanrbientales, Award, [1541, [157], [173]; Cms Gas, Award, [275]; International 1'h,mderbird Gaminy Corporation v. Mexico,, Award, ad hoc-Utvcrrunu Arbitration Rules (26 January 2006) [147]. 76 See, eg, International Thllnderbird Gaming Coqioratiooi v. Mexico, Award, ad hoc—UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules (26 January 2006) [167] (`International Tlllmderbird, Award'). " See, eg, MTD Equity Sdn Bhd arrd Mix Chile SA v. Chile, Award, Icsii) Case No. A)m/0) /7 (25 May 2004) [205]. 78 See, eg, International Thunderbird, Award, [164]. Saluka, Partial Award, [305]; see also SD Myers, First Partial Award, [263]; Parkerings-Ciompagniet, Award on Jurisdiction and Merits, [332]-[333]. 80 See Walter Ban Act v. Thniland, Award, ad hoc—UNcirx.AL Arbitration Rules (1 July 2009) [12.43].

81 Suez, Decision on Liability, [211J, quoting Duke Energy Electroquil Partners and Electroquil SA v. Republic of Ecuador, Award, Icsid Case No. Atzts/04/19 (18 August 2008) [340]. "z Suez, Decision on Liability, [203], [207]. 83 Entered into force 14 October 1966. et Article 42(1) (emphasis added). $5 Adopted by UNCITRAL 28 April 1976. 86 See art 33. 87 See, eg, NAFTA, art 1131(1); Compania de Aguas del Aconqtiya SA and Vivendi Universal SA v. Arqentine Republic, Decision on Annulment, ICSID Case No. ARS/97/3 (3 July 2002) [96]; Azurix Corp v. Argentina, Decision on Application for Annulment, ICSID Case No. ARB/01/12 (1 September 2009) [145] ("Azurix, Award'); Ole Spiennann, 'Applicable Law' in Peter Muchlinski, Federico Ortino and Christoph Schreuer (eds), The Oxford Handbook of International Investment Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008) 90, 107-10, 116; Christopher Dugan, Paul Hastings, Don Wallace Jr, Noah Rubins and Borzu Sabahi, Investor-State Arbitration (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2008) 213.

ViennaConnentionontheLawofTreaties, 1155 UNITS 331 (adopted 22 May 1969) ('VCLT'), art 31 (1). VCLT, art 31(3)(c).. » Cf SD Myers, First Partial Award, [215], [221]. » If a 'treaty specifies that it is subject to, or that it is not to be considered as incompatible with, an earlier or later treaty, the provisions of that other treaty prevail': Vc:LT, art 30(2). The FCTC does not specify that it is subject to any other treaties: Fc:TC, art 2. We assume that the BIT in our example docs not specify that it is subject to earlier or later treaties in general or to the FCTC in particular. 1)2 VCLT, art 30(3). '3 VCLT, art 30(4)(a). 94 VcLT, art 30(4)(b). 95 See VCLT, arts 30(5), 41. 1. 9s Cf Tecnicas Medioambimtales, Award, [1411.

11 See Middle East Cement Shipping and Handling Co SA v. Egypt, Award, ICSID Case No. Amt/99/6 (12 April 2002) [107]; Técnicas Medioambimtales, Award, [114J; Waste Management, Award, [143J. 98 Rudolf Dolzer and Christoph Schreucr, Principles ofititentatiotial Investment Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008) 91. See, eg, NAFTA, art 1110(1); Agreemerrt between the Government of the Republic of Chile and the Government of the People Republic of China Concerning the Encouragement and Promotion and Reciprocal Protection of Investments (signed 23 March 1994, entered into force 1 August 1995) art 4(l); Agreement between the Government of Australia and the Government of the Arab Republic of Egypt on the Promotion and Protection of Investments (signed 3 May 2001, entered into force 5 September 2002) art 7(1). m On relevant considerations to examine, see 1'oye & Talbot Inr v. Canada, Interim Award, ad hock UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules (26 June 2000) [100]; Campbell McLachlan, Laurence Shore and Matthew Wciniger, International Investment Arbitration: Substantive Principles (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007) [8.128]. 11111 Metalclad Corp err. Mexiro, Award, ad hoc-IcsrD Additional Facility Rules, Icsm Case No. Aais(AF)/97/I (25 August 2000) [103]. But see, eg, Waste Management, Award, [159]; Cnts Gas, Award, [263]. r°r Feldman Karpa, Award [100J. 102 See the references cited in McLachlan, Shore and Weiniger, above n 99, [8.101]-[8.1021. r^' Methanex Corporation v. United States, Final Award on Jurisdiction and Merits, ad hoc—UNC!TRAi Arbitration Rules (3 August 2005) Part IV, Chapter D (Article 1110 NAFTA) [7] (emphasis added); see also Saluka, Partial Award, [262J; SD Myers, First Partial Award, [281J, [2851.

104 See, eg, Archer Daniels, Award, [250]; Azurix, Award, [311]-[312J. 1115 Ben Mostafa, 'The Sole Effects Doctrine, Police Powers and Indirect Expropriation under International Law' (2008) 15 Australian International Law Journal 267, 273-4, 287. See, eg, Todd Weiler, 'Methanex Corp v. UsA: Turning the Page on NAFTA Chapter Eleven?' (2003) 6 Journal of World Investment & Trade 903, 918-20; Weiler, 'Philip Morris vs LJrn,quay', above n 2, n 79. Azurix, Award, [311�. 108 CompaFUa del Desarrollo de Santa Elena SA v. C:osta Rice, Final Award, ICSID Case No. ARB/96/1 (17 February 2000) [72].

io9 See Tania Voon and Andrew Mitchell, `Regulating Tobacco Flavours: Implications of W ro Law' (2011) 29 Boston University International LawJournal (forthcoming).

Information

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 8 8 3
Full Text Views 1 1 1
PDF Downloads 0 0 0
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0