1 1Anil Kumar Kanungo, M.Phil, Ph. D (Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India) is Editor and Part of the Research Division, Indian Institute of Foreign Trade, New Delhi, India. His areas of interests include FDI, India's foreign trade, Chinese economy and trade and WTO issues. The author can be contacted at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Of late the more prominent emerging-market MNES (hereafter referred to as EMNES) included firms such as China's Huawci in telecommunications equipment, Mexico's Cemex in cement, Russia's Gazprom in energy, India's Tata Consultancy Services in information technology (IT) services, and Brazil's Embracr in regional jets.
2 In 1978, the United Nations established the Unit for South-South Cooperation to promote South-South trade and collaboration within its agencies.
3 Ghanshyam Das Birla likened the MRTP Act to a "Damocles' sword permanently hanging on you threatening that government may take charge of your creation if in their opinion you are not managing your job". (Kudaisya 2003, 20). 4 Ministry of Finance, Government of India Website.
These percentages have been calculated as a proportion of the total outward stock for developing countries reported in UNCTAD (2006, p. 303).
6 This trend is referred to upmarketFnt as the investment going from a less developing country to a more developed country (Ramamurti and Singh 2009).
7 In a report of Boston Consulting Group (BCG) available at http://www.bcg.com/publications/files/ New_Global-Challenges May06.pdf " See more at www.epwrf.res.in/includefiles/THEMES%20LlST.HTM.
z Though Indian firms viewed the Western Mrres, or the Korean or the Japanese firms or even present Chinese firms, as models of intemationalization strategy.
10 Daksh company's press release, "Daksh services announces launch offacility in Philippines", 7 January 2004 (http://www.dask.com/pr-7jan04.htm).
�� A detailed analysis of establishing such competitiveness through upgrading, see Kaplinsky and Morris (2001).
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