The historical experiences of Korea around the 19th century do not seem to fit well into the theoretical perspective of TWAIL. It was not Europeans who colonized Korea. Cultural differences cannot explain the Korean experience of exclusion and marginalization as they were brought about by Japan and China who belong to the same cultural sphere as Korea. The cause of imperialism and colonialism may not be confined only to cultural differences. It is not only Europeans who were imperialist and colonialist. Even though it is an undeniable fact that imperialism and colonialism were largely exerted by Westerners, imperialism and colonialism are not solely racial problems. These facts, together with many other facts about Korea, suggest the necessity of a revision of some of the assertions of TWAIL.