The Emergence of Time: Kant, Bergson, and Modern Physics

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This paper deals with the problem of the emergence of time in three different ways, at the intersection of the history of philosophy and the history of science: 1) the emergence of time with subjectivity examined on the basis of Kant’s idealism; 2) the emergence of time with life, considered in the light of the work of Bergson; 3) the emergence of time with the Universe, in relation to the notions of ‘The Big Bang’ and ‘The Planck Wall’. It concludes that the idea of the emergence of time is inconsistent in a diachronic sense, and problematic in a synchronic sense. One meaning could, however, be accorded to this notion: with life, a new relation to time has emerged and has attained one of its most developed forms with the human being.

The Emergence of Time: Kant, Bergson, and Modern Physics

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See Klein 2010.


On this topic see also Barbour (1994) Rovelli (2008 75-92) and Saint-Ours (2011). Rovelli underlines the fact that the quantum gravity is a hypothetical theory which has not yet found any confirmation by a scientific experiment (2008 98).


See the criticism of this view by Kim (1998).

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