Cycling towards the future


Bicycle law in Finland 1880–1920


in Tijdschrift voor Rechtsgeschiedenis / Revue d'Histoire du Droit / The Legal History Review
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In the agrarian and peripheral Grand Duchy of Finland, the challenges of the modern transport technology to the law made themselves known in the course of the nineteenth century. The first velocipedes found their way to Finland in the late 1860s but a bicycle boom only took place in the 1890s. The bicycles led to new risks and problems which had to be regulated somehow. This was done first by the self-regulation of bicycle clubs or associations, and then by police regulations (German: Policey) in various towns. The regulation of bicycling was only local and the same applied to automobile traffic at the beginning of the twentieth century. However, in Helsinki, for example, international multi-party traffic and transportation treaties were also applied in tandem with local norms to some extent. The article maintains that around 1900, local police regulation was still in an important means to deal quickly with the new problems caused by modernization and industrialization especially because of the slow and cumbersome parliamentary law-drafting processes.


Sections

References

9

M. Uola, Suomen Ilmailuliitto 75 vuotta 1919–1994, Helsinki 1994, p. 18–24.

11

For example, Zetterberg, Yhteisellä matkalla (supra, n. 5), p. 31, 39.

24

Kivivuori, Suomen vahingonkorvauslainsäädännön kehitys (supra, n. 15), p. 91–96.

25

Moisala, Auto Suomessa (supra, n. 8), p. 66–71.

33

, 28.4.1896, p. 2.

35

Mrs. Alec Tweedie, Through Finland in carts, London 1897, p. 8.

36

Kylliäinen, Pikakulkuri (supra, n. 32), p. 56–57. See also, Kuva, Kaksipyöräisten vuosisata (supra, n. 31), p. 19, 24.

37

E.g., Viipurin Suomalaisen Polkupyöräilijäseuran Säännöt, Viipuri 1896, p. 2; Stadgar för Wasa Velocipedklubb, Wasa 1894, p. 6.

39

Herlihy, Bicycle (supra, n. 30), p. 138–139, 244–245, 266–271, 298.

42

, list of members, p. 10–15. On women cycling in Finland, see, T. Männistö, Naisetkii jo ajaa polkupyöräl! Suomalais­naisten pyöräily ennen toista maailmansotaa, in: Velomania!, Pyörällä halki aikojen, toim. K. Antila, Tampere 2007, p. 173–179.

44

Herlihy, Bicycle (supra, n. 30), p. 120–121, 132, 152; Schubert, Die Anfänge (supra, n. 29), p. 197. See also W.W. Thornton, Bicycle and velocipede law, The central law journal, 1891:33, p. 264–266; W.C. Rodgers, The rights, duties and liabilities of bicyclists, American law review, 1898:32, p. 223–224.

51

Herlihy, Bicycle (supra, n. 30), p. 271.

57

E.g., Stadgar för Helsingfors Velocipedklubb, Helsingfors 1888, p. 14–15.

61

E.g., Stadgar för Helsingfors Velocipedklubb 1888, p. 14–15; Oulun Polkupyörä-Yhdistyksen säännöt 1896, p. 13–14.

63

E.g., Helsingin polkupyöräseura, Helsinki 1896, p. 7–8.

75

Kuva, Kaksipyöräisten vuosisata (supra, n. 31), p. 27–28.

76

, 10.6.1895, p. 2.

90

Mauranen, Satavuotias autoilija (supra, n. 8), p. 34–37. On automobiles in Sweden, see J. Nerén, Automobilens historia, Stockholm 1937, esp. p. 364–398; G. Ekström, Svens-karna och deras automobiler, Hudiksvall 1983, p. 13–20.

92

E.g., Keski-Savo, 6.8.1904, p. 3; Uusi Aura, 31.10.1906, p. 7; Marttila, Satavuotisen autoilun alkuvaiheet (supra, n. 8), p. 23–24; Juha Kaitanen ja Hannu Salmi, ‘Autohurjastelua – surulliset seuraukset’, Autoliikenteen uhka Varsinais-Suomessa 1911–14, in: Sata lasissa, toim. I. Vähäkangas, Turku 2000, p. 37–50.

95

Wilskman, Automobilitapaturmat (supra, n. 54), p. 273.

99

E.g., Uusi Aura, 8.7.1906, p. 3; Kaitanen [and] Salmi,Autohurjastelua’ (supra, n. 92), p. 37; Mauranen, Satavuotias autoilija (supra, n. 8), p. 40.

100

Landerer, To have and to hold (supra, n. 29), p. 146–147.

103

Sornikivi, Yhdeksän vuosikymmentä (supra, n. 26), p. 32.

106

, 1.1.1909, p. 8.

107

Sornikivi, Yhdeksän vuosikymmentä (supra, n. 26), p. 25–29.

108

Mauranen, Satavuotias autoilija (supra, n. 8), p. 40–42.

109

[no. 2], Valtiopäivät 1910, Asiakirjat 1, Helsinki 1910, p. 45–47.

110

Sornikivi, Yhdeksän vuosikymmentä (supra, n. 26), p. 32.

115

Stolleis, Geschichte (supra, n. 114), p. 264–265. It can also be observed that von Willebrand referred to automobile norms at least parly as police, politiföreskrift: Von Willebrand, Juridiskt Småplock,II (supra, n. 97), p. 16. J.G. Sonck’s Ruotsalais–suomalainen laki- ja virkakielen sanasto (Helsinki 1903, p. 270) translated the Swedish ‘politi’ as ‘politia’ and ‘keeping order’ (järjestyshoito), while ‘politiföreskrift’ was ‘politia- l. järjestysmääräys l. -käsky’.

121

Skowronek, Building a new American state (supra, n. 18), p. 16, 45–46.

122

R. Ellilä, Suomen liikennerikosoikeus, Helsinki 1958, p. 9.

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