Britain’s recognition of the Spanish American republics


The gap between theory and practice in international law (1810–1900)


in Tijdschrift voor Rechtsgeschiedenis / Revue d'Histoire du Droit / The Legal History Review
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This paper seeks to illustrate the major role, which the introduction by Britain of three types of recognition, i.e. de facto, diplomatic and de iure recognition has played in the development of the modern declaratory and constitutive theories of recognition. Through an analysis of historical context, state practice and theories of the nineteenth-century doctrine of recognition, this paper shows that, while the development by Britain of its specific concept of recognition was inspired by Realpolitik, and less by legal considerations as to what the exact function of recognition by third states was, the use of the concept of recognition in the case of Spanish America was increasingly appropriated into a positivist and constitutive approach.


Britain’s recognition of the Spanish American republics


The gap between theory and practice in international law (1810–1900)


in Tijdschrift voor Rechtsgeschiedenis / Revue d'Histoire du Droit / The Legal History Review

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References

2

H. LauterpachtRecognition in international lawCambridge 1948 p. 26–37; C. Ryngaert and S. Sobrie Recognition of states: international law or realpolitik? The practice of recognition in the wake of Kosovo South Ossetia and Abkhazia Leiden journal of international law 24 (2011) p. 468.

5

GrantRecognition of states (supra n. 4) p. 4–12.

7

G. BoasPublic international law: contemporary principles and perspectivesCheltenham 2012 p. 172; Grant Recognition of states (supra n. 4) p. 1–18; H. Kelsen Recognition in international law Theoretical observations The American journal of international law 35 (1941) p. 605–617.

8

LauterpachtRecognition in international law (supra n. 2) p. 26–37.

9

CrawfordCreation of states (supra n. 3) p. 12.

16

FabryRecognizing (supra n. 1) p. 272.

21

24 September 1819Viscount Castlereagh to Lord Stewart FO 7/142 in: Britain and the independence of Latin America 1812–1830 Select documents from the foreign office archives C.K. WebsteriII Oxford 1938 II p. 5; J. Rydjord British mediation between Spain and her colonies The Spanish American historical review 21 (1941) p. 30.

23

24 December 1812Viscount Strangford to Viscount Castlereagh FO 63/125 in: Britain (supra n. 21) i p. 84.

24

1 April 1812Viscount Castlereagh to Sir Henry Wellesley FO 72/127 in: Britain (supra n. 21) II p. 312.

27

10 July 1820Sir Charles Stuart to Viscount Castlereagh FO 27/229 in: Britain (supra n. 21) II p. 103; 24 July 1820 Sir Charles Stuart to Viscount Castlereagh FO 27/229 in: Britain (supra n. 21) II p. 105.

29

W.W. KaufmannBritish policy and the independence of Latin AmericaNew Haven 1951 p. 142; Col. E.M. Lloyd Canning and Spanish America Transactions of the Royal Historical Society 18 (1904) p. 86.

30

12 October 1823Memorandum of a Conference between the Prince de Polignac and Mr. Canning begun Thursday October 9th and concluded Sunday October 12th 1823 in: Britain (supra n. 21) II p. 115; A.G. Stapleton The political life of the right honourable George Canning London 1831 II p. 21.

31

LloydCanning (supra n. 29) p. 78.

32

CrawfordCreation of states (supra n. 3) p. 12.

35

Italics in orignal. J.L. KlüberDroit des gens modernes de l’EuropeStuttgart 1819 p. 44.

37

Crawford Creation of states (supra n. 3) p. 12.

40

14 September 1822Earl of Bathurst to the Duke of Wellington including an extract from a Memorandum composed by Castlereagh in: Britain (supra n. 21) II p. 71. Also in Despatches correspondence and memoranda of Field Marshal Arthur Duke of Wellington ed. by his son K.G. Duke of WellingtonLondon 1834 i p. 284–288.

42

FabryRecognizing states (supra n. 1) p. 58.

43

21 September 1822Duke of Wellington to George Canning FO 92/49 in: Britain (supra n. 21) II p. 72.

44

9 December 1822Canning to Sir William A’Court in: Britain (supra n. 21) II p. 401.

45

22 February 1823Robinson to Canning in: C. Parry Law officers’ opinions to the Foreign Office Vol. 79 Manchester 1965.

47

24 April 1824George Canning to Sir Charles Bagot FO 65/141 in: Britain (supra n. 21) II p. 300; 8 September 1817 Sir Charles Stuart to Viscount Castlereagh FO 27/162 in: Britain (supra n. 21) II p. 94; September 1818 Second Memorandum on the approaching Conferences at Aix-la-Chapelle FO 92/34 in: Britain (supra n. 21) II p. 56.

48

See also HillgruberAufnahme neuer Staaten (supra n. 12) p. 11–12.

54

Hillgruber Aufnahme neuer Staaten (supra n. 12) p. 12.

55

8 December 1821Foreign Office Memorandum in: Some official correspondence of George Canning ed. A.G. Stapleton i London 1887 p. 95.

57

10 September 1813Law Officers to Castlereagh in: Parry Law officers’ opinions (supran. 45) Vol. 78.

58

London 1838IV p. 140. This Order in Council was further prolonged on 31st May: British foreign and state papers 1816–1817 London 1838 IV p. 731.

59

June 3rd 1819Hansard parliamentary debates; May 13th 1819 Hansard parliamentary debates; June 10th 1819 Hansard parliamentary debates; June 3rd 1819 Hansard parliamentary debates; June 21st 1819 Hansard parliamentary debates. See also D.A.G. Waddell British neutrality and Spanish-American independence The problem of foreign enlistment Journal of Latin American studies 19 (1987) p. 1–18.

63

26 November 1822Déclaration du Cabinet de France en réponse à celle du Cabinet Britannique du 24 Novembre FO 92/52 in: Britain (supra n. 21) II p. 81.

64

19 March 1825Sir Henry Wellesley to George Canning FO 7/187 in: BritainII p. 36.

67

Johann Christoph Wilhelm von SteckVersuche über verschiedene Materien politischer und rechtlicher KenntnisseBerlin 1783 p. 55.

70

KlüberDroit des gens modernes (supra n. 35) p. 44. See also T. von Schmalz Das europäische Völkerrecht in acht Büchern Berlin 1817 p. 37.

71

30 November 1822George Canning to Sir William A’Court FO 172/258 in: Britain (supra n. 21) II 399; see also 9 December 1822 George Canning to Sir William A’Court FO 172/258 in: Britain (supra n. 21) II p. 401.

72

12 April 1824Woodbine Parish to George Canning FO 6/3 in: Britain (supra n. 21) i p. 108; 24 October 1824 Woodbine Parish to George Canning FO 6/5 in: Britain (supra n. 21) i p. 119.

76

15 November 1822Canning’s memorandum to the Cabinet FO 72/266 in: Britain (supra n. 21) II p. 393. Also in G. Canning Official correspondence (supra n. 55) p. 48.

77

23 August 1824George Canning to Woodbine Parish FO 118/1 in: Britain (supra n. 21) i p. 114. See the same conditions with respect to Guatemala: 19 May 1828 Earl of Dudley to Charles Dashwood FO 15/8 in: Britain (supra n. 21) i p. 339. With respect to Mexico: 10 October 1823 George Canning to Lionel Hervey FO 50/3 in: Britain (supra n. 21) i p. 433.

78

31 March 1824George Canning to Sir William A’Court FO 72/284 in: Britain (supra n. 21) II p. 421; F.L. Paxson The independence of the South American republics A study in recognition and foreign policy Philadelphia 1903 p. 220–226.

82

J. HendersonAn address to the South Americans and Mexicans with a cursory review of some of the important events and traits of patriotism which have distinguished their respective revolutionsLondon 1822 p. 27.

83

15 June 1824Hansard parliamentary debates.

84

23 June 1824Hansard parliamentary debates.

86

27 September 1822George Canning to the Duke of Wellington FO 92/48 in: Britain (supra n. 21) II p. 74.

87

6 February 1817Robinson to Canning in: Parry Law officers’ opinions (supran. 45) Vol. 78.

88

27 September 1822George Canning to the Duke of Wellington FO 92/48 in: Britain (supra n. 21) II p. 74. See also October 15 1822 George Canning to the Duke of Wellington FO 92/48 in: Britain (supra n. 21) II p. 75 also in Despatches correspondence and memoranda of Field Marshal Arthur Duke of Wellington ed. by his son K.G. Duke of WellingtonLondon 1834 i p. 356–358.

89

See also 15 November 1822Canning’s memorandum for the Cabinet FO 72/266 in: Britain (supra n. 21) II p. 393.

90

15 November 1822Canning’s memorandum for the Cabinet FO 72/266 in: Britain (supra n. 21) II p. 393.

91

Author’s italics. 25 March 1825George Canning to the Chevalier de los Rios FO 72/309 in: Britain (supra n. 21) II p. 438.

92

Author’s italics. 18 October 1822Duke of Wellington to George Canning in: Despatches correspondence and memoranda of Field Marshal Arthur Duke of Wellington ed. by his son K.G. Duke of WellingtonLondon 1834 i p. 385.

93

Author’s italics. October 29 1822George Canning to Field Marshal the Duke of Wellington in: Despatches (supra n. 88) i p. 463.

94

Original italics. October 29 1822George Canning to Field Marshal the Duke of Wellington ibidem.

95

PaxsonIndependence of the South American republics (supra n. 78) p. 248.

101

WheatonElements (supra n. 100) p. 98.

104

Wheaton p. 57.

107

Phillimore p. 17.

108

Phillimore p. 19.

109

Italic in original Phillimore p. 19–20.

110

W. HarcourtAdditional letters by Historicus on some questions of international lawLondon 1863 p. 5.

111

HarcourtAdditional letters (supra n. 110) p. 6.

112

HarcourtAdditional letters (supra n. 110) p. 6.

114

Italics in original. HarcourtAdditional letters (supra n. 110) p. 4.

115

Harcourt p. 7.

116

Harcourt p. 12.

117

Harcourt p. 4.

118

GibbsRecognition (supra n. 105) p. 1.

119

Gibbs p. 5.

120

Gibbs p. 3.

122

A.W. HeffterDas europäische Völkerrecht der GegenwartBerlin 1844 p. 39.

123

A.W. HeffterDas europäische Völkerrecht der GegenwartBerlin 1844 p. 39.

124

A.W. HeffterDas europäische Völkerrecht der GegenwartBerlin 1844 p. 39.

126

T.J. LawrenceThe principles of international lawLondon 1895 p. 87.

127

BlüntschliDas moderne Völkerrecht (supra n. 105) p. 72.

129

Hall p. 93; A. Rivier Principes du droit des gens Paris 1886 i p. 58; L. Oppenheim International law A treatise London 1905 i p. 113.

131

T. TwissThe Law of nations considered as independent political communitiesOxford 1861 p. 19–20. Lauterpacht has claimed that the influence of the constitutive theory runs back to Hegel’s Enzyklopädie der philophischen Wissenschaften through Jellinek. While this may be true none of the writers of the law of nations discussed here refer to it. See Lauterpacht Recognition in international law (supra n. 2) p. 38.

132

BlüntschliDas moderne Völkerrecht (supra n. 105) p. 71.

133

H. BonfilsManuel de droit international publicParis 1898 p. 101; see also Rivier Principes (supra n. 129) i p. 57; P. Pradier-Fodéré Traité de droit international public Paris 1885 i p. 237.

134

See also E. Creasy First platform (supra n. 105) p. 677; F. von Holtzendorff Handbuch des Völkerrechts Hamburg 1887 p. 24; De Martens Traité de droit international (supra n. 105) p. 358.

136

OppenheimInternational law (supra n. 129) p. 109.

137

See also AnghieImperialism (supra n. 10) p. 75.

140

LorimerInstitutes (supra n. 139) p. 105.

143

NysLa doctrine de la reconnaissance (supra n. 135) p. 294.

144

CalvoLe droit international théorique et pratique (supra n. 130) p. 243.

145

12 December 1826Hansard parliamentary debates.

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