Egyptian Citizenship Legislation, Private International Law, and Their Impact on Individual Rights

in Middle East Law and Governance
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Under Egyptian law, citizenship plays a major role in defining the rights that a person may exercise. While Egyptians are generally free to work in any profession and own all types of property, foreign nationals are subject to restrictions, which vary depending on the rights they wish to exercise and their legal status in the country. Access to Egyptian citizenship is a discretionary process that is potentially discriminatory along ethnic, religious, and national lines. This article examines recent developments in legislation governing citizenship and individual rights in Egypt. It proceeds to outline areas in which non-Egyptians are subject to legal restrictions in accordance with applicable legislation, notably in the areas of residence, property ownership, adjudication, employment, and education. It finds that Egyptian law in effect creates a complex hierarchy of rights based primarily on citizenship status.

Egyptian Citizenship Legislation, Private International Law, and Their Impact on Individual Rights

in Middle East Law and Governance

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References

10

Thabetsupra n. 4 at 53. However those of Egyptian origin whose fathers were not born in Egypt must live in Egypt for five years before applying for citizenship (Section 4(2)).

14

Rajia Aboulkheir“Proposal for ‘Nationality by Investment’ to Boost Egypt Economy”Al Arabiya NewsAugust 13 2014 http://english.alarabiya.net/en/perspective/features/2014/08/13/Proposal-for-nationality-by-investment-to-boost-Egypt-economy.html accessed on October 16 2014.

15

Habib Toumi“Egypt ‘may grant citizenship to Gulf’s stateless’”Gulf NewsAugust 10 2014 http://gulfnews.com/news/region/egypt/egypt-may-grant-citizenship-to-gulf-s-stateless-1.1370301 accessed on October 16 2014.

16

Name omitted“Egyptian nationality stripped from 800, including Palestinians”Egypt IndependentOctober 29 2014 http://www.egyptindependent.com/news/egyptian-nationality-stripped-800-including-palestinians accessed on November 4 2014.

21

Sonia Farid“Stripping Egyptians of citizenship: a new punishment?”Al Arabia NewsOctober 23 2014 http://english.alarabiya.net/en/perspective/analysis/2014/10/23/Stripping-Egyptians-of-citizenship-a-new-punishment-.html accessed on November 4 2014.

45

Tarek Badawy“Refugee Children in Egypt and the Right to Education: Examining the Gap between Theory and Practice”Mediterranean Journal of Human Rights 11 no. 2 (2007) 95107.

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