Plato, Hyperides, and Hellenistic Cult Practice

On the Commemoration of the Dead in the School of Epicurus

In: Mnemosyne

Abstract

This paper investigates the commemoration of the dead as practised in the Epicurean school: for this purpose, it first discusses the remembrance of the past and of the deceased as constitutive elements of the cult community of the Kepos. The community of the Epicureans is studied in the context of other contemporary associations and Hellenistic ruler cults, and with a view to (possible) connections with the cult of the god Dionysus. In a next step, the paper examines Epicurean testimonies on the subject of commemorating the dead in comparison with passages in Plato and the epitaphioi logoi, especially the epitaphios written by Hyperides. This way, some striking parallels emerge, and it becomes evident how deeply Epicurean doctrine and practice were embedded in the context of the late Classical and Hellenistic polis.

  • Alcock, S.E. 1991. Tomb Cult and the Post-Classical Polis, AJA 95, 447-467

  • Angeli, A. 1988. La Scuola epicurea di Lampsaco nel PHerc. 176 (Fr. 5, coll. I, IV, VIII-XXIII), CErc 18, 27-51

  • Arnaoutoglou, I.N. 2011. “Ils étaient dans la ville, mais tout à fait en dehors de la cité.” Status and Identity in Private Religious Associations in Hellenistic Athens, in: van Nijf, O.M., Alston, R. (eds.) Political Culture in the Greek City after the Classical Age (Leuven et al.), 27-48

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Arrington, N.T. 2010. Topographic Semantics. The Location of the Athenian Public Cemetery and Its Significance for the Nascent Democracy, Hesperia 79, 499-539

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Arrighetti, G. 19732. Epicuro, Opere (Turin)

  • Ascough, R.S. 2002. Greco-Roman Philosophic, Religious, and Voluntary Associations, in: Longenecker, R.N. (ed.) Community Formation in the Early Church and the Church Today (Peabody, MA), 3-19

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ascough, R.S. 2008. Forms of Commensality in Greco-Roman Associations, CW 102, 33-45

  • Bignone, E. 19732. L’Aristotele perduto e la formazione filosofica di Epicuro (Florence)

  • Bremmer, J. 2014. Initiation into the Mysteries of the Ancient World (Berlin/Boston)

  • Brown, E. 2009. Politics and Society, in: Warren, J. (ed.) The Cambridge Companion to Epicureanism (Cambridge), 179-196

  • Capasso, M. (ed.) 1982. Trattato etico epicureo (PHerc. 346) (Naples)

  • Capasso, M. (ed.) 1987. L’aspetto cultuale nel rapporto tra Epicuro e i seguaci, in: Capasso, M. Comunità senza rivolta. Quattro saggi sull’epicureismo (Naples), 25-37

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chaniotis, A. 2011. The Ithyphallic Hymn for Demetrios Poliorketes and Hellenistic Religious Mentality, in: Iossif, P., Chankowski, A.S., Lorber, C.C. (eds.) More than Men, Less than Gods. Studies on Royal Cult and Imperial Worship (Leuven), 157-195

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clay, D. 1998a. Individual and Community in the First Generation of the Epicurean School, in: Clay, D. Paradosis and Survival. Three Chapters in the History of Epicurean Philosophy (Ann Arbor, Mich.), 55-74 [first published 1993]

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clay, D. 1998b. The Cults of Epicurus, in: Clay, D. Paradosis and Survival. Three Chapters in the History of Epicurean Philosophy (Ann Arbor, Mich.), 75-102 [first published 1986]

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clay, D. 2009. The Athenian Garden, in: Warren, J. (ed.) The Cambridge Companion to Epicureanism (Cambridge), 9-28

  • Colin, G. (ed.) 1946. Hypéride, Discours. Texte établi et publié par G.C. (Paris)

  • Culpepper, R.A. 1975. The Johannine School. An Evaluation of the Johannine-School Hypothesis Based on an Investigation of the Nature of Ancient Schools (Missoula, MT)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Currie, B. 2005. Pindar and the Cult of Heroes (Oxford)

  • DeWitt, N.W. 1936. Organization and Procedure in Epicurean Groups, CPh 31, 205-211

  • Dillon, S. 2000. Subject Selection and Viewer Reception of Greek Portraits from Herculaneum and Tivoli, JRA 13, 21-40

  • Dorandi, T. 1991. Ricerche sulla cronologia dei filosofi ellenistici (Stuttgart)

  • Edelmann-Singer, B. 2007. Religiöse Herrschaftslegitimation in der Antike. Die religiöse Legitimation orientalisch-ägyptischer und griechisch-hellenistischer Herrscher im Vergleich (St. Katharinen)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ekroth, G. 2002. The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Periods (Liège)

  • Erler, M. 2010. ΝΗΦΩΝ ΛΟΓΙΣΜΟΣ. A proposito del contesto letterario e filosofico di una categoria fondamentale del pensiero epicureo, CErc 40, 23-29

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Erskine, A. 2014. Ruler Cult and the Early Hellenistic City, in: Hauben, A., Meeus, A. (eds.) The Age of the Successors and the Creation of the Hellenistic Kingdoms (323-276 BC) (Leuven), 579-690

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Essler, H. 2013. Freundschaft der Götter und Toten. Mit einer Neuedition von Phld., Di 3, Frg. 87 und 83, CErc 43, 95-111

  • Farnell, L.R. 1921. Greek Hero Cults and Ideas of Immortality (Oxford)

  • Ferguson, W.S. 1944. The Attic Orgeones and the Cult of Heroes, HThR, 37,2, 61-174

  • Flashar, H. (ed.) 2006. Aristoteles, Fragmente zu Philosophie, Rhetorik, Poetik, Dichtung (Berlin)

  • Foerster, W. 1966. σῴζω, σωτηρία, Theologisches Wörterbuch zum Neuen Testament 7, 992-999

  • Frischer, B. 1982. The Sculpted Word. Epicureanism and Philosophical Recruitment in Ancient Greece (Berkeley et al.)

  • Graf, F. 1999. Komos, DNP 6, 705-706

  • Greco, E. (ed.) 2014. Topografia di Atene. Sviluppo urbano e monumenti dalle origini al 3 secolo d.C., 4. Ceramico, Dipylon e Accademia (Paestum)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Guidobaldi, M.P., Esposito, D. 2010. New Archaeological Research at the Villa of the Papyri in Herculaneum, in: Zarmakoupi, M. (ed.) The Villa of the Papyri at Herculaneum (Berlin/New York), 21-62

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haake, M. 2008. Das “Gesetz des Sophokles” und die Schließung der Philosophenschulen in Athen unter Demetrios Poliorketes, in: Hugonnard-Roche, H. (ed.) L’enseignement supérieur dans les mondes antiques et médiévaux. Aspects institutionels, juridiques et pédagogiques (Paris), 89-112

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haake, M. 2015. Philosophical Schools in Athenian Society from the Fourth to the First Century BC. An Overview, in: Gabrielsen, V., Thomsen, C.A. (eds.) Private Associations and the Public Sphere (Copenhagen), 57-91

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Habicht, C. 1970. Gottmenschentum und griechische Städte (Munich)

  • Henrichs, A. 2011. Göttliche Präsenz als Differenz. Dionysus als epiphanischer Gott, in: Schlesier, R. (ed.) A Different God? Dionysus and Ancient Polytheism (Berlin/New York), 105-116

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Henry, W.B. (ed.) 2009. Philodemus, On Death (Atlanta, GA)

  • Heßler, J.E. 2013 Epikur(eismus), in: Heinen, H. (ed.) Handwörterbuch der antiken Sklaverei (CD-ROM IV)

  • Heßler, J.E. (ed.) 2014. Epikur, Brief an Menoikeus (Basel)

  • Heßler, J.E. 2016a. Das Gedenken an Verstorbene in der Schule Epikurs in der Tradition der ἐπιτάφιοι λόγοι, in: De Sanctis, D., Spinelli, E., Tulli, M., Verde, F. (eds.) Questioni epicuree (St. Augustin), 95-112

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Heßler, J.E. 2016b. τὸν σοφὸν οὐ δοκεῖ ῥητορεύσειν καλῶς? Rhetorik in Texten Epikurs, in: Männlein-Robert, I., Rother, W., Schorn, S., Tornau, C. (eds.) Philosophus orator. Rhetorische Strategien und Strukturen in philosophischer Literatur. Akten des Symposions zum 60. Geburtstag von M. Erler (Basel), 138-158

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Heßler, J.E. 2017. Erzählen von der Vergangenheit bei griechischen Rednern, in: Klein, D., Erler, M. (eds.) Die Kunst des Erzählens, Würzburg, in print

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • von den Hoff, P. 1994. Philosophenporträts des Früh- und Hochhellenismus (Munich)

  • Hose, M. 1997. Der alexandrinische Zeus. Zur Stellung der Dichtkunst im Reich der ersten Ptolemäer, Philologus 141, 46-64

  • Holton, J.R. 2014. Demetrios Poliorketes, Son of Poseidon and Aphrodite. Cosmic and Memorial Significance in the Athenian Ithyphallic Hymn, Mnemosyne 67, 370-390

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jacoby, R. 1944. ΓΕΝΕΣΙΑ. A Forgotten Festival for the Dead, CQ 38, 3-4, 65-75

  • Körte, A. (ed.) 1890. Metrodori Epicurei fragmenta (Leipzig)

  • Leiwo, M. 1997. Religion, or Other Reasons? Private Associations in Athens, in Frösén, J. (ed.) Early Hellenistic Athens. Symptoms of a Change (Helsinki), 103-117

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Leone, G. 1987. La chiusa del XIV libro « Della natura » di Epicuro, CErc 17, 49-76

  • Longo Auricchio, F. 1978. La scuola di Epicuro, CErc 8, 21-37

  • Longo Auricchio, F. 2014. Il culto di Epicuro. Studi e testi. Qualche aggiornamento, in: Beretta, M.et al. (eds.) Il culto di Epicuro. Testi, iconografia e paesaggio (Florence), 39-64

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lüders, O. 1873. Die dionysischen Künstler (Berlin)

  • Lynch, J.P. 1972. Aristotle’s School. A Study of a Greek Educational Institution (Berkeley, Calif.)

  • Marchiandi, D. 2014a. F. 92—Il Demosion Sema, in: Greco (ed.), 1441-1455

  • Marchiandi, D. 2014b. F. 93—La ceremonia funebre per i caduti di guerra e l’epitaphios agon, in: Greco (ed.), 1455-1457

  • Marchiandi, D. 2014c. 11.26—Il Kepos di Epicuro, in: Greco (ed.), 1462-1464

  • Marcovich, M. 1988. Hermocles’ Ithyphallos for Demetrius, in: Marcovich, M. Studies in Graeco-Roman Religions and Gnosticism (Leiden et al.), 8-19

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martelli, M. 2014. L’assimilazione al dio attraverso le τέχναι. Gli scienziati in età ellenistica e imperiale, in: Beretta, M., Citti, F., Iannucci, A. (eds.) Il culto di Epicuro. Testi, iconografia e paesaggio (Florence), 15-38

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mattusch, C.C. 2010. Programming Sculpture? Collection and Display in the Villa of the Papyri, in: Zarmakoupi, M. (ed.), The Villa of the Papyri at Herulaneum. Archaeology, Reception, and Digital Reconstruction (Berlin), 79-88

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mattusch, C.C., Lie, H. 2005. The Villa dei Papiri at Herculaneum. Life and Afterlife of a Sculpture Collection (Los Angeles)

  • Meißner, B. 2000. Hofmann und Herrscher. Was es für die Griechen hieß, Freund eines Königs zu sein, AKG 82, 1-36

  • Michels, C. 2011. Dionysus Kathegemon und der attalidische Herrscherkult. Überlegungen zur Herrschaftsrepräsentation der Könige von Pergamon, in: Günther, L.-M., Plischke, S. (eds.) Studien zum vorhellenistischen und hellenistischen Herrscherkult (Göttingen), 114-140

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mikalson, J.D. 1998. Religion in Hellenistic Athens (Berkeley, Calif. et al.)

  • Moesch, V. 2008. La Villa dei Papiri, in: Guidobaldi, M.P. (ed.) Ercolano. Tre secoli di scoperte. Catalogo della mostra, Napoli, Museo Archeologico Nazionale (Milan), 70-79

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Müller, S. 2010. Demetrios Poliorketes, Aphrodite und Athen, Gymnasium 117, 559-573

  • Nilsson, M.P. 1967-19743. Geschichte der griechischen Religion. 3 vols. (Munich)

  • Obbink, D. (ed.) 1996. Philodemus, On Piety Part 1 (Oxford)

  • Pascual, J. 2011. Epicuro y Atenas. La creación de una comunidad identitaria distinta de la pólis, SHHA 29, 39-63

  • Petruzziello, L. (ed.) 2009. Iperide. Epitafio per i caduti del primo anno della guerra lamiaca (PLit. Lond.133v) (Pisa/Rome)

  • Pochmarski, E. 1972/1973. Neue Beobachtungen zum Typus Sardanapal, JÖAI 50, 41-67

  • Pochmarski, E. 1985. Nochmals zum Typus Sardanapal, JÖAI 55, 63-75

  • Poland, F. 1909. Geschichte des griechischen Vereinswesens (Leipzig)

  • Pollitt, J.J. 1986. Art in the Hellenistic Age (Cambridge)

  • Reinmuth, O.W. (ed.) 1971. The Ephebic Inscriptions of the Fourth Century BC (Leiden)

  • Ryan, P. 1997. Menexenus, in: Cooper, J.M. (ed.), Plato, Complete Works (Indianapolis/ Cambridge, MA), 950-964

  • de Sanctis, D. 2013. La salvezza nelle parole. L’immagine del σωτήρ nel περὶ παρρησίας di Filodemo, CErc 43, 63-71

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schmitt, H.H. 2005. Herrscherkult, in: Schmitt, H.H., Vogt, E. (eds.) Lexikon des Hellenismus (Wiesbaden), 443-452

  • Scholz, P. 2006. Bios philosophikos. Soziale Bedingungen und institutionelle Voraussetzungen des Philosophierens in klassischer und hellenistischer Zeit, in: Rapp, C., Wagner, T. (eds.) Wissen und Bildung in der antiken Philosophie (Stuttgart/Weimar), 37-58

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, M.F. (ed.) 2013. Diogenes of Oinoanda. The Epicurean Inscription (Naples)

  • Steinhauer, J. 2014. Religious Associations in the Post-Classical Polis (Stuttgart)

  • Svenson, D. 1995. Darstellungen hellenistischer Könige mit Götterattributen (Frankfurt a.M.)

  • Usener, H. (ed.) 1887. Epicurea (Leipzig)

  • Ustinova, Y. 1996. Orgeones in Phratries. A Mechanism of Social Integration in Attica, Kernos 6, 227-242

  • Wallace, S. 2013. Adeimantus of Lampsacus and the Development of the Early Hellenistic Philos, in: Troncoso, V.A., Anson, E.M. (eds.) After Alexander. The Time of the Diadochi (323-281 BC) (Oxford), 142-158

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wendland, P. 1904. Σωτήρ, ZNTW 5, 335-353

  • von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, U. 1881. Antigonos von Karystos (Berlin)

  • Zanker, P. 1995. Die Maske des Sokrates. Das Bild des Intellektuellen in der antiken Kunst (Munich)

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 213 185 17
Full Text Views 173 161 0
PDF Downloads 17 15 0