Originally, Ancient Greek employed the letter digamma (
It is well known that many ancient Greek dialects preserved the /w/ sound into the historical period, contrary to Attic-Ionic and Koine Greek. This sound can be found usually in dialectal inscriptions, represented by the letter digamma (
This paper focusses on the use of gamma to replace the letter digamma, and to represent the /w/ sound in general. This spelling is attested particularly in the Lexicon of Hesychius and certain scholarship believes it is a scribal blunder, originating in the confusion between the shape of capital gamma (
The paper begins by sketching the history of the digamma, for the benefit of those readers who are not well-acquainted with the question. Next, it reviews the available evidence regarding the theoretical knowledge around the digamma possessed by the ancient grammarians and lexicographers, from the first century BC until the Byzantine era. This review aims to evaluate the extent of their theoretical knowledge, in order to assess whether grammarians and scribes failed to recognise the sound /w/ as the one once represented by digamma, thus using other letters to denote this sound.
Subsequently, the paper provides a brief overview of the graphic solutions adopted to replace the digamma, and introduces the core topic of this discussion, that is the letter gamma attested in place of digamma. After discussing the current theories surrounding this question, the paper then proceeds to present the argument for discarding the theory of the scribal mistake. It does so by providing and discussing old and new evidence that indicates that this unorthodox use of gamma is linked to the phonetic evolution of the sound represented by gamma (i.e. /g/), which under some circumstances came to coincide with the sound once denoted by digamma (i.e. /w/), through a process of combined fricativisation (or spirantisation) and labialisation (or rounding) of the velar stop, triggered by its proximity to a rounded vowel. The set of the evidence comprises instances of gamma used to represent the /w/ sound found in: (1) the Lexicon of Hesychius; (2) documentary papyri from Egypt from the second century BC to the seventh century AD; (3) medieval Greek manuscripts; (4) a second century BC handwritten ostracon that contains a fragment by Sappho; (5) a second century AD inscription by poet Iulia Balbilla; (6) Ancient Greek transcriptions of Latin words; and (7) Modern Greek transcriptions of English words.
Finally, in order to provide a parallel from historical linguistics, the theory of the development of the velar plosive /g/ into the voiced labiovelar approximant /w/ in Post-Classical Greek is compared with the opposite evolution of /w/ into /g/, which can be observed in some Romance languages, in Armenian, and in some Celtic and Germanic languages.
2 Background: A Brief History of the Letter Digamma
Ancient Greek inherited from Indo-European the sound /w/, the voiced labiovelar approximant also present in Latin: e.g. uicus, ‘neighbourhood’, ‘village’ (pronounced /ˈwi:kus/).3 Mycenaean Greek, the earliest attested form of Greek, still retained this sound at the end of the second millennium BC: e.g. wa-na-ka, corresponding to Attic
The /w/ sound and its graphic representation (
In contrast to Attic-Ionic, the digamma is attested in most of the Greek dialects, primarily in inscriptions. The letter digamma and the sound it represented disappeared first in consonant clusters; afterwards between vowels; and lastly in initial position before a vowel, where it persisted well into the Post-Classical period, as late as the second century BC. In addition, a relic of the sound uniquely survived to date in Tsakonian, a rural Laconian dialect.6 Here, it can be observed for example in
3 What Ancient Grammarians Knew about Digamma
In order to understand how the sound /w/ came to be denoted by gamma, it may be useful to observe to what extent the ancient grammarians were acquainted with the digamma, and with the words that retained this sound—because the alternative forms of denoting the sound /w/ are likely to have originated from a gap in the grammarians’ knowledge about digamma.
The digamma did not abruptly disappear from the Greek language. Its practical use died out alongside the writing of Greek dialects. As late as the second and third century AD, it is still possible to find—albeit rarely—instances of digamma in literary papyri containing Aeolic and Doric poetry.9
At any rate, from the first century BC until at least the sixth century AD, the ancient grammarians preserved some theoretical knowledge about the digamma. Observations about digamma are made, for example, by Dionysius of Halicarnassus,10 Apollonius Dyscolus,11 Quintilian,12 Priscian,13 and the Byzantine scholiast to Dionysius Thrax.14 These observations suggest that the use of digamma was already obsolete, mostly a relic of the Doric and Aeolic poetry, hence worthy of explanatory remarks in treatises on historical grammar.
A recently discovered passage of Galen’s On Simple Drugs, found in an Italian codex (Vat. Urb. Gr. 67, ff. 239v-240r), contains some philologically correct remarks on the use of digamma, attributed to Galen himself.15 Here, the author states that in his time the digamma was still present in ‘accurate copies’ (
Nevertheless, despite some correct theoretical knowledge about digamma, the ancient grammarians are often mistaken about the practical use of this letter, or about the words that contained it. For example, some authors are persuaded that digamma had applied generically to those words that in their time began with a vowel; and therefore they prefixed a digamma to words that—from an etymological point of view—did not have it, or contained it in internal position. For example, the first century BC historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states:
σύνηθες γὰρ ἦν τοῖς ἀρχαίοις Ἕλλησιν ὡς τὰ πολλὰ προτιθέναι τῶν ὀνοµάτων, ὁπόσων αἱ ἀρχαὶ ἀπὸ φωνηέντων ἐγίνοντο, τὴν ου συλλαβὴν ἑνὶ στοιχείῳ γραφοµένην. τοῦτο δ’ ἦν ὥσπερ γάµµα διτταῖς ἐπὶ µίαν ὀρθὴν ἐπιζευγνύµενον ταῖς πλαγίοις, ὡς Ϝελένη καὶ ϝάναξ καὶ ϝοῖκος καὶ ϝαὴρ καὶ πολλὰ τοιαῦτα.16
For it was the custom of the ancient Greeks generally to place before those words that began with a vowel the syllable ου (pronounced /u/), written with one letter. This was like a gamma, formed by two oblique lines joined to one upright line, such as
Ϝελένη, ϝάναξ, ϝοῖκος, ϝαὴρand many such words.
Here the letter digamma is not mentioned by name, and the author refers to it as the ‘syllable
Moreover, the Lexicon of Hesychius defines digamma simply as ‘a letter’, or ‘a sound’.18 We cannot reliably date this gloss, which could have been written at any point between the mid first and the sixth century AD, but the fact that the name appears as a dictionary entry is a sign that digamma was unknown to most Greek speakers, as the Lexicon does not generally include letter names. The only other letter here glossed is lambda (
To summarise, digamma is attested in literary papyri containing Aeolic and Doric poetry until the second and third centuries AD. However, according to Galen, in the second century AD digamma could be found only in ‘accurate copies’ of the lyric poets. This circumscription may explain why attestations of digamma are rare and inconsistent in these centuries, to the extent that some literary papyri contain at the same time words with digamma, words in which the sound of digamma is represented by other letters, and words from which the digamma is omitted altogether.20 After this period, digamma disappears, together with dialectal poetry, which survives only in the form of rare lines scattered within the works of grammarians. Then, other letters become the norm to denote the sound /w/. Nevertheless, from the first century BC onwards, ancient grammarians persevere and share some theoretical knowledge—albeit imperfect—about the letter digamma. Within this philological tradition, a few dialectal words are often quoted as examples, such as (
4 Graphic Representations of /w/ in Greek (
β, ο, υ, ου)
In the history of the Greek language, the sound /w/ has been represented in different ways, owing to the instability of its use and pronunciation. As discussed above, the most ancient sign employed for it in alphabetic Greek was the letter digamma (
One of the most common choices to replace digamma is the letter beta (
In addition, other letters were employed in place of digamma, such as omicron (
Similarly, these letters were also employed to transliterate the /w/ sound in Latin, represented by the Latin semivowel u.30 For example, in the Jewish catacombs of Rome,31 among the inscriptions we can find the word
These examples show that there was no standard for transcribing the /w/ sound, for dialectal Greek words or for foreign ones. Therefore, the choice of the letter employed to represent this sound remained at the discretion of the scribes.
5 Gamma for /w/
A few sources offer instances of another letter used to represent the /w/ sound in ancient Greek, namely gamma (
The use of the letter gamma in place of digamma has been explained as the result of a scribal mistake.44 According to this hypothesis, in an age in which the digamma was largely unknown to Greek scribes, instances of digamma—most likely in its capital form (
In contrast to this explanation, Masson believes that this use of gamma is a scribal convention, owing to the systematicity of its attestations.45 This way of transcribing digamma would have developed in a specific ‘school’ of grammarians, and established itself in parallel to the other options, such as beta (
In the nineteenth century, one hypothesis employed to justify this peculiarity was that certain Greek dialects had mutated the pronunciation of /w/ into a velar plosive /g/, citing as a parallel a similar evolution of the Latin semivowel u into the Gallo-Romance languages.46 Similarly, Milman Parry, pioneer of the oral-formulaic composition theory applied to the Homeric poems, suggests that “the easier explanation” for gamma used in placed of digamma “is that the grammarians had found, or rather heard of, some regional Aeolic dialect in which the digamma had survived in a velarised form, and that they concluded that this was the actual sound which had been used in Lesbian poetry”; and that Iulia Balbilla also employed gamma in place of digamma “in accordance with such doctrine”.47
In partial agreement, on the one hand, with Masson’s belief that this use has its origin in grammatical or lexicographical practices, and, on the other hand, reversing the phonetic shift theory that imagines a velarisation of /w/, I will present here my argument for discarding the theory of the scribal mistake. I will also provide evidence indicating that this unorthodox use of gamma is linked to the phonetic evolution of the sound represented by gamma (voiced velar plosive /g/), which under some circumstances came to coincide with the sound once denoted by digamma (voiced labiovelar approximant /w/) through a process of combined fricativisation (or spirantisation) and labialisation (or rounding) of a velar stop, triggered by the proximity with a rounded vowel.
5.1 The Glosses of Hesychius
The main source for words in which gamma is used to represent /w/ is the Lexicon of Hesychius.48 Here, words characterised by this feature are recorded throughout the whole collection, and their identification is not always straightforward. The easiest to spot are those words that begin with gamma and are matched by their standard Greek equivalent without this initial letter, such as
The source of the Hesychian glosses with gamma in place of digamma is unknown. The most recent edition of the Lexicon63 ascribes most of them to the second century AD grammarian Diogenianus of Heraclea,64 author of
The fact that the glosses with gamma in place of digamma are placed in the correct alphabetical order, under gamma, could be in itself considered a reason not to consider this a scribal mistake, as it would involve a twofold error: mistaking digamma for gamma, and re-alphabetising all these entries, including those that display gamma in the word. Nevertheless, this paper will not focus on this aspect to substantiate its argument, and will provide more compelling evidence.
5.2 Spelling Mistakes in Greek Papyri and Manuscripts
The first and most crucial reason not to consider the use of gamma in place of digamma as a mistake is its use to represent the sounds /w/ and /u/ in Greek papyri, dating to between the second century BC and the seventh century AD, and in some medieval manuscripts. This spelling is motivated by one specific shift—first noticed by Gignac66 —of the voiced velar plosive /g/, which became a voiced labiovelar approximant /w/ in certain contexts, mostly in intervocalic position after a rounded vowel. This shift of the voiced velar plosive/g/ is not isolated, as it also became (1) voiced velar fricative /
The shift of gamma to denote the /w/ sound is substantiated by instances of this letter wrongly omitted before or after the /u/ sound (e.g.
On the other hand, gamma is sometimes wrongly inserted after the /w/ sound, particularly to reinforce the diphthongs
In addition, examples of this use of gamma are attested in some Byzantine manuscripts: e.g.
In all of these misspellings—contrary to the instances found in the Lexicon of Hesychius—gamma is not used in place of digamma, but rather to represent the /w/ sound. Its incorrect omission/insertion can only be motivated by the confusion between the sound of gamma and the sound of the second element of diphthongs
The same type of misspelling attested in documentary papyri and manuscripts can be found in an ostracon from Egypt dating to the second century BC, which preserves a fragment of the Lesbian poet Sappho (fr. 2 Lobel-Page).90 The piece is believed to be either a personal copy of the poem or a school exercise, characterised by some dictation mistakes not unusual for the period and the region.91 At the end of the first line of the poem, located on the third line of the potsherd, we can find the word
In addition, in the same fragment (l. 6) we can find
If the use of gamma to denote the /w/ sound resulted from the impromptu transcription of the Aeolic word
5.4 The Inscription by Iulia Balbilla
Two instances of gamma in place of digamma, found in a second century AD inscription from Egypt, are particularly compelling, because the type of document on which they are recorded is immune to the scribal corruption that may have affected the Lexicon of Hesychius.
Iulia Balbilla was a Roman noblewoman, the daughter of the exiled prince of Commagene Gaius Iulius Archelaus Antiochus Epiphanes, a Roman client monarch and influential first century AD politician. She was born in Rome and had a cosmopolitan upbringing. She lived in Athens and in Alexandria, where her mother came from; she was a well-educated poet and a friend of Vibia Sabina, the wife of the emperor Hadrian. She arrived in Egypt within the entourage of the empress when the entire imperial court was touring the country. In November 130 AD they were near Thebes and payed a visit to the two gigantic statues of Pharaoh Amenhotep III, known as the colossi of Memnon. One of these statues was renowned because the wind, blowing through a crack that had been caused by an earthquake, used to howl in a particularly impressive way, making it a popular destination for foreign tourists, who were accustomed to mark their presence there by engraving their name or some lines of verse on them. For the occasion, Iulia Balbilla composed four poems (of a total of forty-five lines), and had them inscribed on the left ankle and foot of the howling colossus.93
The elegiac distichs by Iulia Balbilla are composed in literary Lesbian, in the style of Alcaeus and Sappho. Aeolic was a fashionable dialect for poetry at that time, and Sappho a common model for female authors.94 In the first of these texts (inscr. 28 Bernard and Bernard), two words display a gamma instead of the expected digamma:
In addition, Iulia Balbilla employs other Aeolic words that retain the /w/ sound:
Balbilla’s poem is “sophisticated, mostly unrepetitive” and “metrically flawless”;101 the accuracy of the composition and the careful choice of rare Aeolic words, mostly from Sappho, Alcaeus, and Homer, bear witness to her quality as a writer;102 the poet was relatively proficient in the use of literary Lesbian, although some of her Aeolisms are artificial creations and not actual dialectal words (e.g.
Nevertheless, it is difficult to ascertain whether Iulia Balbilla devised the orthography of these words herself. She could have adopted the orthography she learnt in school and from edited poetic texts, possibly being unaware that they represented an original digamma.104 Masson believes that this use of gamma is a scribal convention developed by grammarians to transcribe dialectal and poetic words.105 This would explain why the pronoun
At any rate, the use of gamma in place of digamma by Iulia Balbilla cannot be explained by a misreading of the letter digamma, and the reason for this orthographic solution must reside in her grammatical education, and her knowledge of the Aeolic authors.
5.5 Use of Gamma to Represent the Latin Semivowel u
In addition to the aforementioned instances found in Greek papyri of the Roman era, there are some further noteworthy cases of the letter gamma (
οἱ Ῥωµαῖοι … σέργους δὲ τοὺς δούλους ἐκάλουν, τοὺς δὲ µὴ δορυκτήτους, δουλεύοντας δ’ ὅλως, φαµούλλους ἐκάλουν.109
The Romans … called the slaves serui; while they called famuli those that were not ‘won by the spear’ (i.e. war-slaves) but acted generally as servants.
Here we can observe the different treatment in Greek of Latin u, as a semivowel and a vowel: first, the Latin semivowel u (of serui) transcribed with Greek gamma (
5.6 Gamma for /w/ in Modern Greek
The use of gamma to denote the sound /w/, first attested in some second century BC papyri, can still be seen in Modern Greek in the transcription of the English semivowel w.
As it has been said before, the sound of gamma evolved into different sounds in the transition from Ancient to Modern Greek: /g/, /
5.7 Affinity of /w/ and /g/ in the Romance Languages
A shift in the opposite direction, namely from the sound /w/ to /g/, a case of de-labialisation of a labiovelar consonant, can be found in a few Indo-European languages.111 Most notably, in the evolution of Latin words into some Romance languages and dialects of the Gallo-Roman branch. For instance: Latin uespa, ‘wasp’, becomes guêpe, ‘wasp’, in French; Latin uastare, ‘to make empty’, ‘to laid waste’, becomes gâter, ‘to spoil’, in French, and guastare, ‘to spoil’, in Italian; Latin uagina, ‘sheath’, becomes gaine in French, and guaina in Italian, in contrast to Spanish vaina, and Portuguese bainha, all with the same meaning. Moreover, from Latin uulpes ~ uolpes, ‘fox’, derive Old French goupil, Tuscan Italian golpe ~ golpa, and Lombard Italian gulp, ‘fox’, in contrast to standard Italian volpe, and Romanian vulpe, all ‘fox’.112 In addition, there are further examples of the shift of /w/ to /g/ in Armenian (e.g. garun, ‘spring’, akin to Latin vēr, from Proto-Indo-European *wes-r̥;113 and gaṙn ‘lamb’, akin to Skt. úran-, from Proto-Indo-European*wr̥h1ēn);114 in the Celtic languages (e.g. Welsh gwin, ‘wine’, from Latin uinum); and in the Germanic languages (e.g. Swedish lager, ‘laurel’, from Latin laurus).
These examples show that the voiced velar plosive /g/ and the voiced labiovelar approximant /w/ can evolve, and come close to the point of coinciding in their articulation.
6 Two Hypotheses on the Disappearance of the Digamma from the Manuscripts
Before concluding this paper, I would like to share two hypotheses on the practicalities of how the letter digamma disappeared from the manuscript tradition. As stated by Galen (Vat. Urb. Gr. 67, ff. 239v-240r), up to the second century AD the letter digamma was still present in ‘accurate copies’ of the lyric poets. This means that some expert scribes and grammarians were familiar with the phonetic value of digamma to this date. The decline of this expert knowledge, and the ultimate disappearance of digamma from the manuscript tradition may have happened in two ways.
(1) The existence of ‘accurate copies’ implies that also non-accurate copies were in circulation. We may imagine that these were produced for the benefit of those readers who were unfamiliar with the digamma and did not know how to read it. In such copies all digammas were substituted on purpose with other non-obsolete letters that all readers could recognise (e.g.
(2) Texts containing words with digamma (e.g. lyric poetry) were dictated to scribes or students who either were completely unfamiliar with this letter or occasionally failed to recognise its sound as such in specific words. An example of the former case may be Sappho’s fr. 2 Lobel-Page, in which the sound of digamma is written with either beta (
This paper has offered a review of the philological problem of the letter gamma (
Through the analysis of old and new evidence, found in Ancient Greek literary and documentary papyri, lexicography, literature, and medieval manuscripts, the paper has concluded that this use of gamma is not a scribal blunder. It is rather motivated by a specific phonetic development of the sound represented by the letter gamma. This sound (voiced velar plosive /g/) underwent a twofold process of fricativisation (or spirantisation), extensively documented in Greek (/g/
This is demonstrated by instances of gamma (
To summarise, the letter gamma in place of digamma is a phonetically-motivated spelling solution employed to represent a letter that had become obsolete, and a sound that was no longer present—as an independent phoneme—in the phonetic repertoire of Post-Classical Greek speakers. This use of gamma, first attested in some second century BC papyri from Egypt, is coherent with other Post-Classical scribal practices that employed various letters (e.g.
DELG = Chantraine, P. (1968-1980).
EDG = Beekes, R.S.P. (2010).
GEW = Frisk, H. (1954-1972).
IEW = Pokorny, J. (1959).
LSJ = Liddell, H.G. et al. (1940).
Cirio, A.M. (2011). Gli epigrammi di Giulia Balbilla. Ricordi di una dama di corte e altri testi al femminile sul Colosso di Memnone. Lecce.
Dickey, E. (2007). Ancient Greek Scholarship. A Guide to Finding, Reading, and Understanding Scholia, Commentaries, Lexica, and Grammatical Treatises, from Their Beginnings to the Byzantine Period. Oxford/New York.
Martelli, M. (2012). Galeno grammatico sui nomi stranieri e il digamma. Un passo inedito dal IX libro del trattato sui medicamenti semplici. Aion 34, pp. 131-147.
Masson, O. (1990). Remarques sur la transcription du w par bêta et gamma. In: H. Eichner and H. Rix, eds., Sprachwissenschaft und Philologie. Jacob Wackernagel und die Indogermanistik heute. Kolloquium der Indogermanischen Gesellschaft vom 13. bis 15. Oktober 1988 in Basel, Wiesbaden, pp. 202-212.
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( Masson, O. ). 1990 Remarques sur la transcription du w par bêta et gamma. In: , eds., Sprachwissenschaft und Philologie. Jacob Wackernagel und die Indogermanistik heute. Kolloquium der Indogermanischen Gesellschaft vom 13. bis 15. Oktober 1988 in Basel, and H. Eichner H. Rix Wiesbaden, pp. 202- 212.
E.g. Sophocles 1854, 21-22; Clayman 1978, 396; Sihler 1995, 183.
Gignac 1970, 189; 1976, 74.
Sihler 1995, 178 and 182.
Attested in glosses (e.g. D.H. 1.20.3-4) and inscriptions (e.g. IG VII 3187).
Sihler 1995, 182; Colvin 2007, 37.
On Tsakonian see Pernot 1934.
Sihler 1995, 182-183.
E.g. Corinna in P.Berol. inv. 13284 (2nd c. AD); Corinna in P.Oxy. 12.2370 (ca. 200 AD); Sappho in P.Oxy. 1.7 (3rd c. AD).
Apollonius Dyscolus (GG I 77) cites a fragment by Alcaeus (fr. 649a Lobel-Page) with
Inst. 1.18-23 (2.15-18 Keil).
Sch. D. Thr. 34.20 Hilgard.
For details and discussion see Martelli 2012.
P.Paris. 71 = P.Louvr. E 3320 (Alcm. fr. 1 Page-Davies):
Schwyzer 1939, 207-208; Horrocks 2010, 170.
In contrast to Attic-Ionic
Attested e.g. in Hdt. 4.154.
Str. 8.4.4; Ptol. Geog. 3.16.22.
Ahrens 1843, 46; 51.
Attested e.g. in Alc. fr. 70 Lobel-Page, and Pi. P. 2.28, 3.24. Confirmed by Prisc. Inst. 1.36-2.28 Keil, who states that the Aeolians pronounced Greek υ as Latin u, i.e /w/.
E.g. Alc. fr. S262 Page; Sapph. fr. 2 Lobel-Page; IG XII2 6.
IG V1 1564.
Sihler 1995, 182.
Built in the 2nd-3rd c. AD, the Jewish catacombs of Rome were used until the 5th c. AD.
Allen 1968, 29.
E.g. SB 21.9332 (199 AD); BGU 1.145 (213 AD); and BGU 1.98 (211 AD).
E.g. SB 12.2155 (481 AD).
E.g. BGU 9.1893 (149 AD).
E.g. BGU 2.423 (2nd c. AD).
SB 2.4122 (120 AD).
OMich. 1.203 (336 AD).
The Lexicon is believed to date to the 5th or 6th c. AD, consisting of miscellaneous material from earlier word collections as early as the 1st c. AD. The only surviving codex (Venice, Marc. Gr. 622) dates to the 15th c. AD.
Sappho lived between the 7th and 6th c. BC. The fragment in question dates to the 2nd c. BC.
The 12th c. AD scholar Eustathius (Commentarii ad Homeri Odysseam 2.281.10-11), possibly quoting the 2nd c. AD grammarian Herodian (
DELG 785 s.v.
E.g. Sophocles 1854: 21-22; Clayman 1978, 396; Sihler 1995, 183.
Masson 1990, 208-211.
Ahrens 1843, 52.
Parry 1934, 142.
One of the most complete lists of Hesychian glosses that bear gamma in place of digamma is provided by Ahrens 1843, 53-56, whose account remains one of the most relevant studies on the question.
Hsch. γ 22; cf. Cretan
Hsch. α 361.
Hsch. α 362.
Vide supra Aeolic
Ahrens 1843, 46; GEW I 458; DELG 320; EDG 385.
Latte and Cunningham 2018.
Masson 1990, 210.
The main core of the Lexicon is believed to be a word collection called
Gignac 1970, 189; 1976, 74.
In documentary papyri, gamma is often wrongly added/omitted before front vowels (e.g.
Horrocks 2010, 170.
P.Fam.Tebt. 13 (113-114 AD). Et similia: BGU 21.2044 (46 AD); P.Lond. 3.1166 (41-42 AD); P.Vind.Worp. 10 (143-144 AD); P.Muench. 1.14 (594 AD); P.Oxy. 12.1430 (324); BGU 11.2121 (81-96 AD); P.Mon. 14.14 (594 AD); etc.
P.Oxy. 10.1265 (336 AD).
Misspelt twice in the same document, which is P.Flor. 3.353 (83-95 AD).
P.Oxy. 14.1716 (333 AD).
Stud.Pal. 20.68 (3rd c. AD); cf. Gignac 1976, 74 for further details.
Schwyzer 1939, 197; Horrocks 2010, 165.
Thrice in P.Oxy. 3.504 (early 2nd c. AD); SB 1.4179 (ca. 1st-3rd c. AD).
BGU 1.288 (144-147 AD).
PSI 12.1254 (237 AD).
P.Tebt. 1.11 (119 BC). Similarly P.Tebt. 1.26 (114 BC).
P.Oxy. 3.487 (156 AD).
P.Cair.Isidor. 16.62 (296 AD).
P.Berl.Sarisch. 20 (4th c. AD).
PSI 14.1430 (7th c. AD).
E.g. P.Mich. 5.261 (35 AD); BGU 16.2590 (25 BC).
E.g. BGU 6.215 (2nd c. AD); P.Oxy. 43.3093 (217 AD).
E.g. P.Lond. 4.1610 (709 AD).
E.g. SB 12.10841 (4th c. AD).
Crönert 1903, 91 n. 3.
The codex also has
PSI 13.1300 (2nd c. BC).
Norsa 1937, 8-10.
This word is also attested twice in another Lesbian poet of the same period, Alcaeus (fr. S262 Page, and in Str. 9.2.29).
Bernand and Bernand 1960, inscr. 28-31.
Brennan 1998, 219-220.
Alcm. fr. 7 Page; Sapph. fr. 164f. Lobel-Page; Corinn. fr. 7 Page. Codex Parisinus Graecus 2548 (1oth c. AD), which preserves the works of Apollonius Dyscolus, represents the letter digamma in these dialectal Greek fragments in various ways: with digamma (
Bernand and Bernand 1960, inscr. 28, v. 11.
Bernand and Bernand 1960, inscr. 29, v. 1.
E.g. Sapph. fr. 123 Lobel-Page.
Brennan 1998, 221.
Cirio 2011, 79-80.
Bubenik 1989, 98.
Thumb and Scherer 1959, 82-83.
Masson 1990, 209.
Curtius 1879, 600.
Phot. Epistulae et Amphilochia 323.
The first century AD Roman orator Quintilian states that Greek gamma (called Aeolicum digammon) is equivalent to the Latin semivowel u, and uses as examples seruus and ceruum (Inst. 1.4, 12.10).
The evolution /w/
Latin /w/ becomes also /b/, e.g. Venetian bolp ~ bulpe, ‘fox’; remains /w/, e.g. Lombard of Valtellina ulp, ‘fox’, (pronounced /ˈwulp/); and at times disappears, e.g. olp, ‘fox’, in Solaro language, a Rhaetian dialect spoken in a few alpine valleys around Trento, in the north of Italy.
Martirosyan 2009, 201 s.v.
Martirosyan 2009, 198-199 s.v.