Unlawful Resolutions of the Security Council and their Legal Consequences

in Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law Online
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Unlawful Resolutions of the Security Council and their Legal Consequences

in Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law Online

References

I M. Bedjaoui, The New World Orderand the Security Council, Testing the Legality of its Act, 1994, 131 et seq.; H. Mosler, "On Art. 92 ", 990 et seq., in: B. Simma (ed.), The Charter of the United Nations. A Commentary, 1994; T.Stein, "Das Attentat von Lockerbie vor dem Sicherheitsrat der Vereinten Nationen und dem Internationalen Gerichtshof", AVR 31 (1993), 206 et seq. 2 G. Jaenicke, "V61kerrechtsquellen", in: H.J. Schlochauer (ed.), Worter- buch des Vdlkerrechts, Vol. 3, 1962, 772, qualifies the decisions of the ICJ to produce a quasi normative effect; W. Heintschel v. Heinegg, "Die weiteren Quellen des V61kerrechts", in: K. Ipsen (ed.), Volkerrecht, 1990, 225. 3 D.P. O'Connell, International Law, Vol. I, 1965, 30: "In discovering the formation of international law, it is important not to underestimate the

role of judicial decisions in the cristallisation of custom"; but see K. Doehring, "Die Rechtsprechung als Rechtsquelle des V61kerrechts. Zur Auslegung des Art. 38 Abs. 1 Ziff. d des Statuts des Internationalen Gerichtshofs", in: Richterliche Recbtsfortbildung, Festschrift der Juristi- schen Fakultat zur 600-Jahr-Feier der Ruprecht-Karls-Universitat Hei- delberg, 1986, 549 et seq. 4 As to this question K. Oehers-Frahm, "Das Statut des internationalen Strafgerichtshofs zur Verfolgung von Kriegsverbrechen im ehemaligen Jugoslawien", ZaoRV 54 (1994), 417/18. 5 ICJ Reports 1984, 424.

6 E. Kaufmann, Das Wesen des Volkerrechts und die clausula rebus sic stantibus, 1911, 153, took the view that the won war proves the winner's right. 7 H. Steinberger, "Sovereignty", in: R. Bernhardt (ed.), EPIL 10 (1987), 408: "Sovereignty is a legal status within but not above international law". 8 It is a widely accepted view that the interpretation of the Charter corre- sponds to that of a constitution; Mosler, see note 1, 980, characterizes the Charter as a "great constitutional instrument"; R. Monaco, "Sources of International Law", in: R. Bernhardt (ed.), EPIL 7 (1984), 426; G. Ress, "Interpretation", in: Simma, see note 1, 27 et seq. 9 K. Dicke, "Universality", in: R. Wolfrum (ed.), United Nations: Law, Policies and Practice, Vol. 2, 1995, 1353.

10 J.H. Stahl and D. Chauvaux, "Chronique g6n6rale de jurisprudence constitutionnelle franqaise", AJDA 51 (1995), 684 et seq., dealing with the litigation concerning the legality of nuclear tests. The decision of 29 September 1995 is reported on 749. 11 Baker v. Carr, 369 U.S., 186, (1962); T.M. Franck, Politieal Questions. Juridical Answers, 1992. 12 R.J. Walker, The English Legal System, 6th edition, 1985, 172. �3 I. Kant, Die drei Kritiken , edited by R. Schmidt, 1952, 411 et seq. 14 H. Kruger, Allgemeine Staatslehre, 1964, 948; K. Doehring, Allgemeine Staatslehre, 1991, 104 et seq.

15 K. Zemanek, "Das Kriegs- und Humanitatsrecht", in: H. Neuhold (ed.), Osterreichisches Handbuch des Volkerrechts, Vol. 1, 2nd edition , 1991, 419. 16 The situation of changing circumstances is envisaged by E. Suy, "Some Legal Questions concerning the Security Council", in: I. v. Munch (ed.), Staatsrecht — Volkerrecht - Europarecht, Festschrift fiir Hans-Jiirgen Schlochauer, 1981, 677 et seq. 17 Cf. ILC 48th Session, Doc. A/CN.4/L.528/Add.2 of 16 July 1996. 18 But even in those cases the German Federal Constitutional Court hesi-

tates to correct an internationally doubtful position of the government, although under the Consitution all state power is bound not to disregard international law; BVerfGE Vol. 55, 349 (367) and BVerfGE Vol. 77, 137 (164). �y BVerfGE Vol. 27, 253 (284); Vol. 38, 128 (133); Vol. 84, 90 (130 et seq.). 20 H. Kelsen, The Law of the United Nations. A critical Analysis of its fundamental problems, 1950, 294; G. Dahm, V61kerrecbt, Vol. 2, 1961, 212, took the view that the members of the United Nations are not entitled to question the legality of the Security Council's resolutions and are also prevented from restricting them by reservations; Bedjaoui, see note 1,127: "Nobody doubts that the maintenance of international peace and security must have priority". zl Doehring, see note 14, 80 et seq. 22 As to the purposes and principles of the United Nations Charter see: R.

Wolfrum, "On Art. 1", 49 et seq., in: Simma, see note 1. 23 When the Resolution of the General Assembly A/RES/ 2625 (XXV) of 24 October 1970 stresses the principle of sovereign equality of all states, it shows clearly the incompatibility of the United Nations with a state. 24 Lea. Frowein, "On Art. 43", 636 et seq., (638), in: Simma, see note 1. Z� K. Doehring, "Collective Security", in: Wolfrum, see note 9, Vol. 1, 1995, 110 et seq., (113).

26 It is surprising that the term "necessary'' in Article 51 of the Charter is seldom defined by commentators, but see Oppenheim's International Z.�,J. Jennings (ed.), 9th edition, Vol. 1, Part 1,1992, 423, note 22, where it is held that necessary measures are only those producing sufficient effect. 27 See note 20.

28 E. Klein, "Paralleles Tatigwerden von Sicherheitsrat und Internationalem Gerichtshof bei friedensgefahrdenden Streitigkeiten", in: R. Bernhardt et al. (ed.), Völkerrecht als Rechtsordnung. Internationale Gerichtsbarkeit. Menscbenrechte. Festschrift fur Hermann Mosler, 1983, 481, points out that the Security Council may temporarily neglect rights when otherwise peace cannot be preserved. 29 Klein, see above, 487.

30 Suy, see note 16, 677 et seq. 31 Surprisingly, it is not even required in German Constitutional Law to bring a case before the Federal Constitutional Court before the Federal Government takes action against a member of the Federation in order to restore law and order; see BVerfGE Vol. 7, 367 (372).

32 ICJ Reports 1962, 151-180. 33 K. Doehring, "Gewohnheitsrecht aus Vertragen'', ZaoRV 36 (1979), 77 et seq.; E.R. Baxter, "Treaties and Custom", RdC 129 (1970), 25-105.

34 J.A. Frowein, "Ius Cogens", in: R. Bernhardt (ed.), EPIL 7 (1984), 327 et seq., (329). 35 H. Mosler, "General principles of law", in: Bernhardt, see above, 89 et seq., (96). 36 Monaco, see note 8, 432. 3� T. Buergenthal, H. G. Maier, Public International Law, 2nd edition, 1989, 108: "In general, states are free to enter treaties that change, as between them, otherwise applicable rules of customary international law". 38 See e.g. Treaty of Peace with Italy, 10 February 1947, UNTS Vol. 49 No. 747, Article 79.

39 The Austrian State Treaty, 15 May 1955, UNTS Vol. 217 No. 2949 excludes an unification with Germany (Anschluf3) waiving this way the exercise of self-determination of a specific kind. 40 A.M. Treblincock, "Slavery", in: R. Bernhardt (ed.), EPIL 8 (1985), 484, points out that the prohibition "... has finally accorded with the dignity of free humankind".

41 R. Dolzer, Eigentum, Enteignung und Entscbddigung im geltenden Vol- kerrecbt, 1985, 53. 42 Convention on the Settlement of Matters Arising out of the War and the Occupation, 23 October 1954, UNTS Vol. 332 No. 4762, Part IV, Article 2 and 3.

a3 See the Arts. 49, 56, 103. 44 As to the interpretation of Article 2 para. 2 see A. Randelzhofer, "On Art. 2", 89 et seq., in: Simma, see note 1. 45 German Federal Constitutional Court, BVerfGE Vo1.34, 216 (232). 46 A. v. Bogdandy, "On Art. 5"- note 1, in: E. Grabitz, M. Hilf (eds.), Kommentar zur Europäischen Union, 1995.

47 B.-O. Bryde, "On Art. 49", 656 et seq., (658), in: Simma, see note 1, characterizes this prohibition as a lex imperfecta, since the Security Council is under no obligation to react. 48 K.J. Partsch, "Reprisals", in: R. Bernhardt (ed.), EPIL 9 (1986), 330 et seq., (331). 49 K. Doehring, "Local Remedies, Exhaustion of", in: Bernhardt, see note above, 1 (1981), 136 et seq.

50 K. Doehring, "The Unilateral Enforcement of International Law by Exercising Repraisals", in: R. St. John Macdonald (ed.), Essays in Honour of Wang Tieya, 1993, 235-242.

51 This result also corresponds with the basic concept presented by, G. Ziccardi Capaldo, "Verticalita della comunita internazionale e Nazioni Unite. Un riesame del caso Lockerbie", in: P. Picone (ed.), Interventi delle Nazioni Unite e Diritto Internazionale, 1995, 61 (72 et seq.).

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