The Boxue Hongci 博學宏詞 Examinations, Literary Anthologies by Emperors and the Literary Circles during the Kangxi and Qianlong Periods

in Ming Qing Yanjiu
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?

Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.

Help

 

Have Institutional Access?

Login with your institution. Any other coaching guidance?

Connect

As a result of political demands and imperial cultural cultivation, the Qing Dynasty reigns of Kangxi (1661–1722) and Qianlong (1736–1796) both paid great attention to the traditional Han culture. During these periods, there were two landmark events that embodied the success of their cultural policy. These were the special examinations of boxue hongci (“breadth in learning and vastness in letters”, also called boxue hongru) in 1679 and 1736, and the publishing of numerous literary anthologies by the emperors. However, scholarly discussions have often focused mainly on aspects of political and cultural domination, and have rarely discussed the impact of these two events on literary circles in the early and middle Qing Dynasty. Thus, this paper examines the boxue hongci examination and the literary anthologies by Emperors as literary events and evaluate them from three perspectives. First, with regards to literary purposes, these two events fostered the link between official and elite discourses. Second, with regards to literary styles, these two events together facilitated the emergence at the height of the Qing Dynasty styles known as qingzhen yazheng (“purity, authenticity, elegance and correctness”) and wenrou dunhou (“gentleness and restraint”). Third, with regards to literary layout, the two events changed the proportion of writers’ identity and actively advanced the balance of the north and south literary circles.

Sections
References
  • Qing Shengzu ren huangdi shilu 清實錄:聖祖仁皇帝實錄 1985–87 Beijing Zhonghua shuju Historical Materials on the Emperor Shengzu (Kangxi) in the Qing Veritable Records

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Siku quanshu cunmu congshu 四庫全書存目叢書 1995 Ji’nan Qilu shushe (Collections of Books Listed in the Section of Surviving Titles of Siku Quanshu)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ChenTingjing陳廷敬 Yuxuan Tangshi 御選唐詩 (Anthology of Imperially Selected Tang Poems) SKQS Edn.

  • DengZhicheng鄧之誠 Qingshi jishi chubian 清詩紀事初編 (The First Edition of Qing Poems Records) 1984 Shanghai Shanghai guji

  • FoucaultMichel GordonColin GordonColinMarshalLeoMephamJohnSoperKate Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings 1972–1977 1980 New York Pantheon

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GuTinglong顧廷龍 Xuxiu Siku quanshu 續修四庫全書 (Continuation of the Siku Quanshu) 1997 Shanghai Shanghai guji

  • HeQingshan何慶善YangYingqin楊應芹 Shi Yushan ji 施愚山集 (Works of Shi Yushan) 1992 Hefei Huangshan shushe

  • HellmutWilhelm “The Po-Hsüeh Hung-ju Examination of 1679” Journal of the American Oriental Society 1951 Jan.–Mar. Vol. 71 No. 1 60 66

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • JiangYin蔣寅 Wang Yuyang yu Kangxi shitan 王漁洋與康熙詩壇 (Wang Yuyang in the Poetic Circles of Kangxi Period) 2001 Beijing Zhongguo shehui kexue

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LiangQichao梁啟超 Zhongguo jin sanbainian xueshushi 中國近三百年學術史 (Chinese Intellectual History of Recent Three Hundred Years) 2013 Shanghai Dongfang chuban zhongxin

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PanWuzheng潘務正 “Wang Shizhen jinru Hanlinyuan de shishi yiyi 王士禛進入翰林院的詩史意義” Wenxue Yichan 文學遺產 2008 2 105 114

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PengDingqiu彭定求 Yuding quan Tangshi 御定全唐詩 (A Complete Edition of Tang Poetry Granted by Emperor) SKQS Edn.

  • ShenDeqian沈德潛 Lidai shi biecai ji 歷代詩別裁集 (Chronicles Anthology of Poetry) 1998 Hangzhou Zhejiang guji

  • XuQianxue徐乾學 Yuxuan guwen yuanjian 御選古文淵鑒 (Profound Mirror of Ancient-style Prose Selected by Emperor) SKQS Edn.

  • YangHaiying楊海英 “Kangxi Boxue hongru kao 康熙博學鴻儒考” Lishi Dang’an 歷史檔案 1996 1 97 99

  • YongRong永瑢 Siku quanshu zongmu 四庫全書總目 (The General Catalogue of Complete Library in the Four Branches of Literature) 1960 Beijing Zhonghua shuju

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ZhuYizun朱彝尊 Pushuting ji 曝書亭集 (Collected Works from the Pushu Pavilion) 1935 Shanghai Shangwu yinshuguan

  • 1

    See Foucault 1980: 78–108.

  • 5

    Siku quanshu cunmu congshu 1995: vol. 249 p. 543.

  • 8

    Shen Deqian et al. 1998: 365.

  • 10

    See Yong Rong 1960: 1729.

  • 11

    Deng Zhicheng 1984: 582.

  • 12

    Zhu Yizun 1935: 460.

  • 14

    Yong Rong 1960: 1728.

  • 15

    Jiang Yin 2001: 35–36.

  • 16

    See Pan Wuzheng 2008.

  • 17

    Liang Qichao 2013: 18.

  • 18

    Yang Haiying 1996: 97–99.

Figures
Index Card
Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 295 288 6
Full Text Views 222 222 1
PDF Downloads 7 7 2
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0