The Efficacy of Single-Trial Multisensory Memories

in Multisensory Research
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This review article summarizes evidence that multisensory experiences at one point in time have long-lasting effects on subsequent unisensory visual and auditory object recognition. The efficacy of single-trial exposure to task-irrelevant multisensory events is its ability to modulate memory performance and brain activity to unisensory components of these events presented later in time. Object recognition (either visual or auditory) is enhanced if the initial multisensory experience had been semantically congruent and can be impaired if this multisensory pairing was either semantically incongruent or entailed meaningless information in the task-irrelevant modality, when compared to objects encountered exclusively in a unisensory context. Processes active during encoding cannot straightforwardly explain these effects; performance on all initial presentations was indistinguishable despite leading to opposing effects with stimulus repetitions. Brain responses to unisensory stimulus repetitions differ during early processing stages (∼100 ms post-stimulus onset) according to whether or not they had been initially paired in a multisensory context. Plus, the network exhibiting differential responses varies according to whether or not memory performance is enhanced or impaired. The collective findings we review indicate that multisensory associations formed via single-trial learning exert influences on later unisensory processing to promote distinct object representations that manifest as differentiable brain networks whose activity is correlated with memory performance. These influences occur incidentally, despite many intervening stimuli, and are distinguishable from the encoding/learning processes during the formation of the multisensory associations. The consequences of multisensory interactions thus persist over time to impact memory retrieval and object discrimination.

The Efficacy of Single-Trial Multisensory Memories

in Multisensory Research

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Figures

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    Illustration of the continuous recognition task used in our studies. In this paradigm participants indicate whether each image is being presented for the first or repeated time. Stimuli are presented for 500 milliseconds. Initial presentations are divided between those containing only images (V condition) and those presented with sounds (AV condition). Repeated presentations consist only of images, but can be divided between those that had been initially presented as images only (V− condition) and those that had been initially presented with sounds (V+ condition). In this way, contrasting performance and/or brain activity from the V− and V+ conditions reveals effects of past multisensory experiences on current unisensory (visual) processing.

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    Psychophysical results. Panel A: The top set of bar graphs displays the mean (s.e.m. indicated) accuracy rates on the continuous recognition task for each experimental condition. The bottom set of bar graphs displays the mean (s.e.m. indicated) reaction times. An asterisk indicates a significant difference (p<0.05) either for repeated presentations in the case of accuracy (see Table 1 for details) or initial presentations in the case of reaction times (details available in original publications). Panel B: The bar graphs display the mean (s.e.m. indicated) accuracy rates from Experiments 1 and 2 in Thelen et al. (submitted). In Experiment 1, one-tailed post-hoc comparisons were warranted, while in Experiment 2 two-tailed post-hoc comparisons were used. An asterisk indicates a significant difference vs. all other conditions (p<0.05; see Table 1 for details). The same shade/filling across histograms refers to the same condition from different experiments.

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    Brain imaging results. Panel A displays group-averaged event-related potential waveforms from an exemplar posterior scalp site from the data of Murray et al., 2004 (left) and Thelen et al., 2012 (right). The asterisk highlights differences observed at ∼100 ms post-stimulus onset. The greyscale topographic maps accounting best for each condition are displayed below the waveform plots with loci of peak positive potential indicated. The nasion is positioned upward and left hemiscalp on the left. Although subtle, topographic differences in each study were statistically reliable. Panel B displays the results of statistical analyses of source estimations in Murray et al. (2004) and Thelen et al. (2012) during the earliest period of event-related potential differences as well as the results of statistical contrasts in the fMRI study of Murray et al. (2005).

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