Visual-Somatosensory Integration and Balance: Evidence for Psychophysical Integrative Differences in Aging

in Multisensory Research
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Research detailing multisensory integration (MSI) processes in aging and their association with clinically relevant outcomes is virtually non-existent. To our knowledge, the relationship between MSI and balance has not been well-established in aging. Given known alterations in unisensory processing with increasing age, the aims of the current study were to determine differential behavioral patterns of MSI in aging and investigate whether MSI was significantly associated with balance and fall-risk. Seventy healthy older adults (M=75 years; 58% female) participated in the current study. Participants were instructed to make speeded responses to visual, somatosensory, and visual-somatosensory (VS) stimuli. Based on reaction times (RTs) to all stimuli, participants were classified into one of two groups (MSI or NO MSI), depending on their MSI RT benefit. Static balance was assessed using mean unipedal stance time. Overall, results revealed that RTs to VS stimuli were significantly shorter than those elicited to constituent unisensory conditions. Further, the current experimental design afforded differential patterns of multisensory processing, with 75% of the elderly sample demonstrating multisensory enhancements. Interestingly, 25% of older adults did not demonstrate multisensory RT facilitation; a finding that was attributed to extremely fast RTs overall and specifically in response to somatosensory inputs. Individuals in the NO MSI group maintained significantly better unipedal stance times and reported less falls, compared to elders in the MSI group. This study reveals the existence of differential patterns of multisensory processing in aging, while describing the clinical translational value of MSI enhancements in predicting balance and falls risk.

Visual-Somatosensory Integration and Balance: Evidence for Psychophysical Integrative Differences in Aging

in Multisensory Research

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Figures

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    Experimental procedures. (a) Apparatus: Participants rested hands comfortably on a table why maintaining fixation on the computer screen, and were required to make speeded responses to all stimuli, regardless of sensory modality, by pressing a foot pedal located under their right foot. (b) Sensory conditions: Participants received bilateral visual (V), bilateral somatosensory (S), and bilateral multisensory VS stimulus conditions. (c) Sequence of events: Three blocks of V, S, and multisensory VS stimuli (45 trials per block) were randomly presented with random inter-trial-intervals (ITIs) of 1–3 s.

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    Averaged reaction time (RT) data by modality. (a) Mean RT values (with SEM bars) for V, S, and VS by multisensory integration (MSI) classification. The first set of bars demonstrates the mean RT values for the overall sample (n=70), where RTs to the VS stimuli are significantly shorter compared to RTs of the constituent unisensory stimuli. The next set of bars depicts the mean RT values for the 18 participants that did not demonstrate an MSI effect (see Section 2.5); where there is no meaningful difference between the mean RT to somatosensory alone condition versus the mean RT to multisensory VS condition. The third set of bars illustrates the mean RT values for the 52 participants that demonstrated a MSI effect; overall there is a degradation of mean RT length, where RTs to visual stimuli were longer than RTs to somatosensory stimuli, which were both longer than RTs to multisensory VS conditions. (b) The last two sets of bars in the large dashed rectangle represent the mean RTs of the two MSI sub-classifications, where the first set of bars depicts mean RT values for the MSI: Soma group (n=39) and the second set of bars depicts mean RT values for the MSI: Visual group (n=12).

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    Cumulative probability model results. Actual (dashed line) and predicted (solid line) cumulative probability values over percentiles by MSI classification and sub-classification. For convenience, results for the NO MSI classification are repeated on the third tier (dashed box).

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    Results of Miller’s test of the race model. The cumulative probability difference waves (actual minus predicted probability) over the trajectory of averaged responses for each MSI classification and sub-classification. The shaded grey box represents the fastest quartile of RTs (i.e., 25th percentile). Values greater than zero indicate violations of the race model.

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    Overall Reaction Time (RT) by MSI Classification. Mean RT in milliseconds (with SEM bars) for the NO MSI and MSI groups.

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