Spatial References and Audio-Tactile Interaction in Cross-Modal Dynamic Capture

in Multisensory Research
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In audiotactile dynamic capture, judgment of the direction of an apparent motion stream (such as auditory motion) was impeded (hence ‘captured’) by the presentation of a concurrent, but directionally opposite apparent motion stream (such as tactile motion) from a distractor modality, leading to a cross-modal dynamic capture (CDC) effect. That is to say, the percentage of correct reporting of the direction of the target motion was reduced. Previous studies have revealed the effect of stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) and the potential spatial remapping (by adopting a cross-hands posture) in CDC. However, further exploration of the dynamic capture process under different postures was not available due to the fact that only two levels of time asynchronies were employed (either synchronous or with an SOA of 500 ms). This study introduced a broad range of SOAs (−400 ms to 400 ms, tactile stream preceded auditory stream or vice versa) to explore the time course of audio-tactile interaction in CDC with two spatial references — arms-uncrossed or arms-crossed postures. Participants judged the direction of auditory apparent motion with tactile distractors. The results showed that in the arms-uncrossed condition, the CDC effect was prominent when the auditory–tactile events were in the temporal integration window (0–60 ms). However, with a preceding tactile cueing effect of SOA equal to and above 150 ms, the CDC effect was reduced, and no CDC effect was observed with the arms-crossed posture. These results suggest CDC effect is modulated by both cross-modal interaction and the spatial reference (especially for the distractors). The magnitude of the CDC effects in audiotactile interaction may be accounted for by reliability of tactile spatial-temporal information.

Spatial References and Audio-Tactile Interaction in Cross-Modal Dynamic Capture

in Multisensory Research

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References

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Figures

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    Experimental setup and temporal correspondence of motion streams used in Experiment 1 and Experiment 2. (A) The participants placed two middle fingers on the tactile actuators which were embedded in foam. The foams were placed just in front of the two speakers (the positions of the two middle fingers were reversed in the arms-crossed posture). A red LED was placed at the center of the setup to serve as a fixation point. (B) Spatial and temporal correspondences. White bars depict the tactile taps and black bars the tones. The direction of the gray arrow indicates the direction of tactile/auditory apparent motion. The direction of tactile apparent motion was either congruent or incongruent with the direction of the auditory motion stream. The onsets of tactile events were either preceding, synchronous with, or lagging behind the onsets of auditory events (SOAs from −400 ms to 400 ms, see descriptions for each experiment in the text). The durations of each single tone and each single tap were fixed at 50 ms, the time intervals between a pair of tones and between a pair of taps were fixed at 100 ms. This figure is published in colour in the online version.

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    The percentage of correct responses and congruency effects (magnitude of the effects) as a function of auditory–tactile SOAs and arm posture conditions. (A) Auditory delay and arms uncrossed; (B) auditory delay and arms crossed; (C) auditory lead and arms uncrossed; (D) auditory lead and arms crossed. The solid line with triangles depicts the percentages when the direction of tactile apparent motion was congruent with the direction of auditory motion, the dashed line with squares shows the percentages when the two motion streams were in opposite directions. The error bars represent standard errors in the different conditions. (E) Magnitude of the effect as a function of the SOAs between the tactile apparent motion stream and the auditory apparent motion stream. The solid line with diamonds indicates the magnitude of the effect with the arms-uncrossed posture. The dashed line with squares indicates the magnitude of the effect with the arms-crossed posture. TA means that the tactile motion preceded auditory motion. AT means that the auditory motion preceded tactile motion. The numbers that appear after AT or TA indicate the temporal onset delays (ms).

  • View in gallery

    The percentage of correct responses and congruency effects (magnitude of the effects) as a function of auditory–tactile SOAs and arm posture condition. (A) Percentage ‘correct’ as a function of auditory–tactile SOAs with the arms uncrossed; (B) Percentage ‘correct’ as a function of auditory–tactile SOAs with the arms crossed; (C) The congruency magnitude of the effect as a function of the SOAs between the tactile apparent motion stream and the auditory apparent motion stream. The solid line with diamonds depicts the percentages when the direction of tactile apparent motion was congruent with the direction of auditory motion. The dashed line with squares shows the percentages when the two motion streams were in opposite directions. TA means the tactile motion preceded auditory motion; AT means the auditory motion preceded tactile motion. Syn means the two motion streams were synchronized. The numbers appearing after AT or TA indicate the temporal onset delays (ms).

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