The Moving History of Vestibular Stimulation as a Therapeutic Intervention

in Multisensory Research
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

Although the discovery and understanding of the function of the vestibular system date back only to the 19th century, strategies that involve vestibular stimulation were used long before to calm, soothe and even cure people. While such stimulation was classically achieved with various motion devices, like Cox’s chair or Hallaran’s swing, the development of caloric and galvanic vestibular stimulation has opened up new possibilities in the 20th century. With the increasing knowledge and recognition of vestibular contributions to various perceptual, motor, cognitive, and emotional processes, vestibular stimulation has been suggested as a powerful and non-invasive treatment for a range of psychiatric, neurological and neurodevelopmental conditions. Yet, the therapeutic interventions were, and still are, often not hypothesis-driven as broader theories remain scarce and underlying neurophysiological mechanisms are often vague. We aim to critically review the literature on vestibular stimulation as a form of therapy in various selected disorders and present its successes, expectations, and drawbacks from a historical perspective.

Multisensory Research

A Journal of Scientific Research on All Aspects of Multisensory Processing

Sections

References

AbercrombieP. H.McKenzieD. (1910). Hysterical deafness with active vestibular reactions, Proc. R. Soc. Med. 3, 7476.

AlbertT. J.DempesyC. W.SorensonC. A. (1985). Anterior cerebellar vermal stimulation: effect on behavior and basal forebrain neurochemistry in rat, Biol. Psychiatry 20, 12671276.

AndersonC. M.PolcariA.LowenS. B.RenshawP. F.TeicherM. H. (2002). Effects of methylphenidate on functional magnetic resonance relaxometry of the cerebellar vermis in boys with ADHD, Am. J. Psychiatry 159, 13221328.

AndréJ. M.PaysantJ.MartinetN.BeisJ. M. (2001a). [ Classification and mechanisms of body perceptions in the amputees], Ann. Réadapt. Méd. Phys. 44, 1318.

AndréJ. M.MartinetN.PaysantJ.BeisJ. M.Le ChapelainL. (2001b). Temporary phantom limbs evoked by vestibular caloric stimulation in amputees, Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychol. Behav. Neurol. 14, 190196.

AngelakiD. E.GuY.DeAngelisG. C. (2009). Multisensory integration: psychophysics, neurophysiology, and computation, Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 19, 452458.

ArnoldL. E.ClarkD. L.SachsL. A.JakimS.SmithiesC. (1985). Vestibular and visual rotational stimulation as treatment for attention deficit and hyperactivity, Am. J. Occup. Ther. 39, 8491.

AugustinF. L. (1803). Versuch einer vollständigen systematischen Geschichte der galvanischen Electricität und ihrer medicinischen Anwendung. In der Felischischen Buchhandlung, Berlin, Germany.

AyresA. J. (1978). Learning disabilities and the vestibular system, J. Learn. Disabil. 11, 1829.

AyresA. J.HeskettW. M. (1972). Sensory integrative dysfunction in a young schizophrenic girl, J. Autism Child. Schizophr. 2, 174181.

BachtoldD.BaumannT.SandorP. S.KritosM.RegardM.BruggerP. (2001). Spatial- and verbal-memory improvement by cold-water caloric stimulation in healthy subjects, Exp. Brain Res. 136, 128132.

BalabanC. D. (2011). Migraine, vertigo and migrainous vertigo: links between vestibular and pain mechanisms, J. Vestib. Res. 21, 315321.

BalabanC. D.JacobR. G. (2001). Background and history of the interface between anxiety and vertigo, J. Anxiety Disord. 15, 2751.

BalohR. W. (2002). Robert Bárány and the controversy surrounding his discovery of the caloric reaction, Neurology 58, 10941099.

BárányR. (1907). Physiologie und Pathologie (Funktions-Prufung) des Bogengang-Apparates beim Menschen. F. Deuticke, Leipzig, Germany.

BarnardK. E.BeeH. L. (1983). The impact of temporally patterned stimulation on the development of preterm infants, Child Dev. 54, 11561167.

Barnett-CowanM.MeilingerT.VidalM.TeufelH.BülthoffH. H. (2012). MPI CyberMotion Simulator: implementation of a novel motion simulator to investigate multisensory path integration in three dimensions, J. Vis. Exp. (63), e3436. DOI:10.3791/3436.

BayerL.ConstantinescuI.PerrigS.VienneJ.VidalP.-P.MühlethalerM.SchwartzS. (2011). Rocking synchronizes brain waves during a short nap, Curr. Biol. 21, R461R462.

BhataraV.ClarkD. L.ArnoldL. E. (1978). Behavioral and nystagmus response of a hyperkinetic child to vestibular stimulation, Am. J. Occup. Ther. 32, 311316.

BhataraV.ClarkD. L.ArnoldL. E.GunsettR.SmeltzerD. J. (1981). Hyperkinesis treated by vestibular stimulation: an exploratory study, Biol. Psychiatry 16, 269279.

BlankeO. (2012). Multisensory brain mechanisms of bodily self-consciousness, Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 13, 556571.

BogousslavskyJ. (2011). Hysteria after Charcot: back to the future, Front. Neurol. Neurosci. 29, 137161.

BonnierP. (1893). Vertige. Rueff, Chartres, France.

BonnierP. (1905). L’Aschématie, Rev. Neurol. 12, 605609.

BottiniG.PaulesuE.GandolaM.LoffredoS.ScarpaP.SterziR.SantilliI.DefantiC. A.ScialfaG.FazioF.VallarG. (2005). Left caloric vestibular stimulation ameliorates right hemianesthesia, Neurology 65, 12781283.

BottiniG.GandolaM.SeddaA.FerrèE. R. (2013). Caloric vestibular stimulation: interaction between somatosensory system and vestibular apparatus, Front. Integr. Neurosci. 7, 66. DOI:10.3389/fnint.2013.00066.

BreathnachC. S. (2010). Hallaran’s circulating swing, Hist. Psychiatry 21, 7984.

BreuerJ. (1874). Ueber die Function der Bogengänge des Ohrlabyrinthes, Med. Jb., Wien, Austria, 72–124.

Brocklehurst-WoodsJ. (1990). The use of tactile and vestibular stimulation to reduce stereotypic behaviors in two adults with mental retardation, Am. J. Occup. Ther. 44, 536541.

BürgyM. (2008). The concept of psychosis: historical and phenomenological aspects, Schizophr. Bull. 34, 12001210.

BurrowsG. M. (1828). Commentaries on the Causes, Forms, Symptoms, and Treatment, Moral and Medical, of Insanity. T. and G. Underwood, London, UK.

CamposR. G. (1994). Rocking and pacifiers: two comforting interventions for heelstick pain, Res. Nurs. Health 17, 321331.

CappaS.SterziR.VallarG.BisiachE. (1987). Remission of hemineglect and anosognosia during vestibular stimulation, Neuropsychologia 25, 775782.

ChokronS.DupierrixE.TabertM.BartolomeoP. (2007). Experimental remission of unilateral spatial neglect, Neuropsychologia 45, 31273148.

ClarkD. L.ArnoldL. E.CrowlL.BozzoloH.PeruggiaM.RamadanY.BornsteinR.HollwayJ. A.ThompsonS.MaloneK.HallK. L.SheltonS. B.BozzoloD. R.CookA. (2008). Vestibular stimulation for ADHD: randomized controlled trial of comprehensive motion apparatus, J. Atten. Disord. 11, 599611.

CoelhoC. M.BalabanC. D. (2014). Visuo-vestibular contributions to anxiety and fear, Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 48, 148159.

CoxJ. M. (1806). Practical Observations on Insanity, 2nd edn. Baldwin, London, UK.

CritchleyM. (1950). The body-image in neurology, Lancet 255, 335341.

CritchleyM. (1953). The Parietal Lobes. Edward Arnold, London, UK.

Crum BrownA. (1874). Preliminary note on the sense of rotation and the function of the semicircular canals of the internal ear, Proc. R. Soc. Edinb. 8, 255257.

Crum BrownA. (1878). Cyon’s researches on the ear. II, Nature 18, 657659.

CurthoysI. S.VulovicV.BurgessA. M.ManzariL.SokolicL.PogsonJ.RobinsM.MezeyL. E.GoonetillekeS.CornellE. D.MacDougallH. G. (2014). Neural basis of new clinical vestibular tests: otolithic neural responses to sound and vibration, Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. 41, 371380.

DarwinE. (1801). Zoonomia; or, the Laws of Organic Life, Vol. 4, 3rd edn. Johnson, London, UK.

DaveC. A. (1992). Effects of linear vestibular stimulation on body-rocking behavior in adults with profound mental retardation, Am. J. Occup. Ther. 46, 910915.

de BarrosA. C. M. P.CaovillaH. H. (2012). From nystagmus to the air and water caloric tests, Braz. J. Otorhinolaryngol. 78, 120125.

De VignemontF. (2010). Body schema and body image — pros and cons, Neuropsychologia 48, 669680.

DodgeR. (1923a). Habituation to rotation, J. Exp. Psychol. 6, 135.

DodgeR. (1923b). Thresholds of rotation, J. Exp. Psychol. 6, 107137.

DodsonM. J. (2004). Vestibular stimulation in mania: a case report, J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 75, 168169.

DoneshkaP.KehaiyovA. (1978). Some peculiarities of the dreams of patients with vestibular diseases, Acta Med. Iugosl. 32, 4550.

DykD.DrakeV.WallisP.BakerG.SelfB. (2008). A home device for vestibular stimulation, Honors Undergrad. Res. J. 1, 10. Available at: http://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/honors/vol1/iss1/10.

EaggerS.LuxonL. M.DaviesR. A.CoelhoA.RonM. A. (1992). Psychiatric morbidity in patients with peripheral vestibular disorder: a clinical and neuro-otological study, J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 55, 383387.

EggerM.Davey SmithG.SchneiderM.MinderC. (1997). Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test, Br. Med. J. 315, 629634.

FalconerC. J.MastF. W. (2012). Balancing the mind: vestibular induced facilitation of egocentric mental transformations, Exp. Psychol. 59, 332339.

FerrèE. R.BottiniG.HaggardP. (2012). Vestibular inputs modulate somatosensory cortical processing, Brain Struct. Funct. 217, 859864.

FerrèE. R.BottiniG.IannettiG. D.HaggardP. (2013). The balance of feelings: vestibular modulation of bodily sensations, Cortex 49, 748758.

FerrèE. R.KaliuzhnaM.HerbelinB.HaggardP.BlankeO. (2014). Vestibular–somatosensory interactions: effects of passive whole-body rotation on somatosensory detection, PLoS One 9, e86379. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0086379.

FigliozziF.GuarigliaP.SilvettiM.SieglerI.DoricchiF. (2005). Effects of vestibular rotatory accelerations on covert attentional orienting in vision and touch, J. Cogn. Neurosci. 17, 16381651.

FitzpatrickR. C.DayB. L. (2004). Probing the human vestibular system with galvanic stimulation, J. Appl. Physiol. 96, 23012316.

FitzpatrickR. C.ButlerJ. E.DayB. L. (2006). Resolving head rotation for human bipedalism, Curr. Biol. 16, 15091514.

FlourensP. (1830). Expériences sur les canaux semi-circulaires de l’oreille dans les oiseaux, Mem. Acad. Sci. 9, 455466.

FrankJ.LevinsonH. (1973). Dysmetric dyslexia and dyspraxia. Hypothesis and study, J. Am. Acad. Child Psychiatry 12, 690701.

FreudS. (1962). On the grounds for detaching a particular syndrome from neurasthenia under the description “anxiety neurosis”, in: The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, Vol. III (1893–1899): Early Psycho-Analytic Publications, StracheyJ. (Ed. and transl.), pp.  85115. Hogarth Press, London, UK.

GackenbachJ.SnyderT. J.RokesL. M.SachauD. (1986). Lucid dreaming frequency in relation to vestibular sensitivity as measured by caloric stimulation, J. Mind Behav. 7, 277298.

GodemannF.LindenM.NeuP.HeippE.DörrP. (2004). A prospective study on the course of anxiety after vestibular neuronitis, J. Psychosom. Res. 56, 351354.

GoldbergJ. M.FernándezC. (2011). The vestibular system, in: Handbook of Physiology, SmithI. D. (Ed.), pp.  9771022. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, MD, USA.

GoldbergJ. M.SmithC. E.FernandezC. (1984). Relation between discharge regularity and responses to externally applied galvanic currents in vestibular nerve afferents of the squirrel monkey, J. Neurophysiol. 51, 12361256.

GoltzF. (1870). Ueber die physiologische Bedeutung der Bogengänge des Ohrlabyrinths, Arch. Physiol. 3, 172192.

GrapengiesserC. J. C. (1801). Versuche den Galvanismus zur Heilung einiger Krankheiten Anzuwenden. Myliussische Buchhandlung, Berlin, Germany.

GraybielA. (1969). Structural elements in the concept of motion sickness, Aerosp. Med. 40, 351367.

GraybielA.BrownR. H. (1951). The delay in visual reorientation following exposure to a change in direction of resultant force on a human centrifuge, J. Gen. Psychol. 45, 143150.

GraybielA.KneptonJ. (1976). Sopite syndrome: a sometimes sole manifestation of motion sickness, Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 47, 873882.

GraybielA.ClarkB.ZarrielloJ. (1960). Observations on human subjects living in a “slow rotation room” for periods of two days, Arch. Neurol. 3, 5573.

GraybielA.WoodC. D.MillerE. F.CramerD. B. (1968). Diagnostic criteria for grading the severity of acute motion sickness, Aerosp. Med. 39, 453455.

GreggC. L.HaffnerM. E.KornerA. F. (1976). The relative efficacy of vestibular-proprioceptive stimulation and the upright position in enhancing visual pursuit in neonates, Child Dev. 47, 309314.

GriffithC. R. (1922). An historical survey of vestibular equilibration, Vol. 20, No. 5. University of Illinois.

GudziolH.KochC.BitterT.Guntinas-LichiusO. (2012). Wet air as an alternative to traditional water irrigation during caloric vestibular testing, Laryngoscope 122, 703707.

GuedryF. E.GraybielA. (1961). Rotation Devices, Other Than Centrifuges and Motion Simulators: The Rationale for Their Special Characteristics and Use, Vol. 902. National Academies.

GurvichC.MallerJ. J.LithgowB.HaghgooieS.KulkarniJ. (2013). Vestibular insights into cognition and psychiatry, Brain Res. 1537, 244259.

HallaranW. S. (1818). Practical Observations on the Cause and Cure of Insanity. Cork, London, UK.

HallpikeC. S.HarrisonM. S.SlaterE. (1951). Abnormalities of the caloric test results in certain varieties of mental disorder, Acta Otolaryngol. 39, 151159.

HarschV. (2006). Centrifuge “therapy” for psychiatric patients in Germany in the early 1800s, Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 77, 157160.

HeinrichsR. W. (2003). Historical origins of schizophrenia: two early madmen and their illness, J. Hist. Behav. Sci. 39, 349363.

HitzigE. (1874). Untersuchungen über das Gehirn. Abhandlungen physiologischen und pathologischen Inhalts. Verlag vom August Hirschwald, Berlin, Germany.

HixsonV. J.MathewsA. W. (1984). Sensory integration and chronic schizophrenia: past, present and future, Can. J. Occup. Ther. 51, 1924.

HornE. (1818). Öffentliche Rechenschaft über meine zwölfjährige Dienstführung als zweiter Arzt des k. Charité Krankenhauses. In der Realschulbuchhandlung, Berlin, Germany.

HornerR. L.SanfordL. D.PackA. I.MorrisonA. R. (1997). Activation of a distinct arousal state immediately after spontaneous awakening from sleep, Brain Res. 778, 127134.

HorowitzS. S.BlanchardJ.MorinL. P. (2005). Medial vestibular connections with the hypocretin (orexin) system, J. Comp. Neurol. 487, 127146.

IchijoH. (2011). Can caloric testing evaluate the function of vertical semicircular canals? Acta Otolaryngol. 131, 716721.

IchijoH. (2012). Does the superior semicircular canal receive caloric stimulation? Am. J. Otolaryngol. 33, 718722.

JamesW. (1881). Sense of dizziness in deaf-mutes, Mind 6(23), 412413.

Jauregui-RenaudK.SangF. Y. P.GrestyM. A.GreenD. A.BronsteinA. M. (2008). Depersonalisation/derealisation symptoms and updating orientation in patients with vestibular disease, J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 79, 276283.

JohnstonC.StremlerR.StevensB. J.HortonL. J. (1997). Effectiveness of oral sucrose and simulated rocking on pain response in preterm neonates, Pain 72, 193199.

JütteR. (2009). Schwindelerregend: Drehmaschinen in der vormodernen Psychiatrie, in: Körper, Dinge Und Bewegung: Der Gleichgewichtssinn in Materieller Kultur Und Ästhetik, SchönhammerR. (Ed.), pp.  128139. Facultas, Wien, Austria.

KantnerR. M.ClarkD. L.AllenL. C.ChaseM. F. (1976). Effects of vestibular stimulation on nystagmus response and motor performance in the developmentally delayed infant, Phys. Ther. 56, 414421.

KarnathH. O.DieterichM. (2006). Spatial neglect — a vestibular disorder? Brain 129, 293305.

KellyG. (1989). Vestibular stimulation as a form of therapy, Physiotherapy 75, 136140.

KerkhoffG.KellerI.RitterV.MarquardtC. (2006). Repetitive optokinetic stimulation induces lasting recovery from visual neglect, Restor. Neurol. Neurosci. 24, 357369.

KimD. J.YogendrakumarV.ChiangJ.TyE.WangZ. J.McKeownM. J. (2013). Noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation modulates the amplitude of EEG synchrony patterns, PLoS One 8, e69055. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0069055.

KolevO. (1990). How caloric vestibular irritation influences migraine attacks, Cephalalgia 10, 167169.

KolevO. I. (1995). Visual hallucinations evoked by caloric vestibular stimulation in normal humans, J. Vestib. Res. 5, 1923.

KornerA. F.LaneN. M.BerryK. L.RhoJ. M.BrownB. W. (1990). Sleep enhanced and irritability reduced in preterm infants: differential efficacy of three types of waterbeds, J. Dev. Behav. Pediatr. 11, 240246.

KrewerC.RießK.BergmannJ.MüllerF.JahnK.KoenigE. (2013). Immediate effectiveness of single-session therapeutic interventions in pusher behaviour, Gait Posture 37, 246250.

KrystalA. D.ZammitG. K.WyattJ. K.QuanS. F.EdingerJ. D.WhiteD. P.ChiacchieriniR. P.MalhotraA. (2010). The effect of vestibular stimulation in a four-hour sleep phase advance model of transient insomnia, J. Clin. Sleep Med. 6, 315321.

KunkleE.LundD.MaherP. (1948). Studies on headache: analysis of vascular mechanisms in headache by use of the human centrifuge, with observations on pain perception under increased positive g, Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry 60, 253269.

LawsonB. D.MeadA. M. (1998). The sopite syndrome revisited: drowsiness and mood changes during real or apparent motion, Acta Astronaut. 43, 181192.

Le ChapelainL.BeisJ. M.PaysantJ.AndréJ. M. (2001). Vestibular caloric stimulation evokes phantom limb illusions in patients with paraplegia, Spinal Cord 39, 8587.

LeeJ.-W.LeeG.-E.AnJ.-H.YoonS.-W.HeoM.KimH.-Y. (2014). Effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation on visual memory recall and EEG, J. Phys. Ther. Sci. 26, 13331336.

LenggenhagerB.LopezC. (2015). Vestibular contributions to the sense of body, self, and others, in: T. Metzinger, and J. M. Windt (Eds), Open MIND, 23(T), MIND-Group, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. DOI:10.15502/9783958570023.

LenggenhagerB.LopezC.BlankeO. (2008). Influence of galvanic vestibular stimulation on egocentric and object-based mental transformations, Exp. Brain Res. 184, 211221.

LenggenhagerB.HiltiL.PallaA.MacaudaG.BruggerP. (2014). Vestibular stimulation does not diminish the desire for amputation, Cortex 54, 210212.

LeslieK.OgilvieR. (1996). Vestibular dreams: the effect of rocking on dream mentation, Dreaming 6, 116.

LevineJ.ToderD.GellerV.KrausM.GauchmanT.PutermanM.GrisaruN. (2012). Beneficial effects of caloric vestibular stimulation on denial of illness and manic delusions in schizoaffective disorder: a case report, Brain Stimulat. 5, 267273.

LevinsonH. N. (1988). The cerebellar–vestibular basis of learning disabilities in children, adolescents and adults: hypothesis and study, Percept. Mot. Skills 67, 9831006.

LevinsonH. N. (1991). Dramatic favorable responses of children with learning disabilities or dyslexia and attention deficit disorder to antimotion sickness medications: four case reports, Percept. Mot. Skills 73, 723738.

LevyD. L.HolzmanP. S.ProctorL. R. (1983). Vestibular dysfunction and psychopathology, Schizophr. Bull. 9, 383438.

LhermitteJ. (1939). L’Image de Notre Corps, 1st edn. Nouvelle Revue Critique, Paris, France.

LopezC. (2013). A neuroscientific account of how vestibular disorders impair bodily self-consciousness, Front. Integr. Neurosci. 7, 91. DOI:10.3389/fnint.2013.00091.

LopezC.BlankeO. (2011). The thalamocortical vestibular system in animals and humans, Brain Res. Rev. 67, 119146.

LopezC.BlankeO. (2014). Nobel Prize centenary: Robert Bárány and the vestibular system, Curr. Biol. 24, R1026R1028.

LopezC.HeydrichL.SeeckM.BlankeO. (2010a). Abnormal self-location and vestibular vertigo in a patient with right frontal lobe epilepsy, Epilepsy Behav. 17, 289292.

LopezC.LenggenhagerB.BlankeO. (2010b). How vestibular stimulation interacts with illusory hand ownership, Conscious. Cogn. 19, 3347.

MachE. (1875). Grundlinien der Lehre von den Bewegungsempfindungen. Engelmann, Leipzig, Germany.

MaedaT.AndoH.SugimotoM. (2005). Virtual acceleration with galvanic vestibular stimulation in a virtual reality environment, in: Proceedings IEEE Virtual Reality, 2005, pp. 289–290.

MastF. W.PreussN.HartmannM.GrabherrL. (2014). Spatial cognition, body representation and affective processes: the role of vestibular information beyond ocular reflexes and control of posture, Front. Integr. Neurosci. 8, 44. DOI:10.3389/fnint.2014.00044.

McDonnellM. D.WardL. M. (2011). The benefits of noise in neural systems: bridging theory and experiment, Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 12, 415426.

McGeochP. D.RamachandranV. S. (2008). Vestibular stimulation can relieve central pain of spinal origin, Spinal Cord 46, 756757.

McGeochP. D.WilliamsL. E.LeeR. R.RamachandranV. S. (2008). Behavioural evidence for vestibular stimulation as a treatment for central post-stroke pain, J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 79, 12981301.

McGeochP. D.WilliamsL. E.SongT.LeeR. R.HuangM.RamachandranV. S. (2009). Post-stroke tactile allodynia and its modulation by vestibular stimulation: a MEG case study, Acta Neurol. Scand. 119, 404409.

McKayR.TamagniC.PallaA.KrummenacherP.HegemannS. C. A.StraumannD.BruggerP. (2013). Vestibular stimulation attenuates unrealistic optimism, Cortex 49, 22722275.

McKenzieD. (1912). Hysterical deafness diagnosed (and cured) by the caloric vestibular test, Proc. R. Soc. Med. 5, 1819.

McNivenD. (1986). Rotational impairment of movement in the Parkinsonian patient, Physiotherapy 72, 381382.

MénièreP. (1861). Mémoire sur des lésions de l’oreille interne donnant lieu à des symptômes de congestion cérébrale apoplectiforme, Gaz. Med. (Paris) 16, 597601.

MillerS. M.NgoT. T. (2007). Studies of caloric vestibular stimulation: implications for the cognitive neurosciences, the clinical neurosciences and neurophilosophy, Acta Neuropsychiatr. 19, 183203.

NakamuraJ.KitaY.YudaT.IkunoK.OkadaY.ShomotoK. (2014). Effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation combined with physical therapy on pusher behavior in stroke patients: a case series, NeuroRehabilitation 35, 3137.

Noll-HussongM.HolzapfelS.PokornyD.HerbergerS. (2014). Caloric vestibular stimulation as a treatment for conversion disorder: a case report and medical hypothesis, Front. Psychiatry 5, 63. DOI:10.3389/fpsyt.2014.00063.

NoreikaV.WindtJ. M.LenggenhagerB.KarimA. A. (2010). New perspectives for the study of lucid dreaming: from brain stimulation to philosophical theories of self-consciousness, Int. J. Dream Res. 3, 3645.

OosterveldW. J.GraybielA.CramerD. B. (1973). Susceptibility to reflex vestibular disturbances and motion sickness as a function of mental states of alertness and sleep, Adv. Otorhinolaryngol. 19, 286294.

OppenländerK.KellerI.KarbachJ.SchindlerI.KerkhoffG.ReinhartS. (in press; published online ahead of print November 2014). Subliminal galvanic-vestibular stimulation influences ego- and object-centred components of visual neglect, Neuropsychologia. DOI:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2014.10.039.

OrnitzE. M. (1970). Vestibular dysfunction in schizophrenia and childhood autism, Compr. Psychiatry 11, 159173.

OrnitzE. M.ForsytheA. B.de la PeñaA. (1973). Effect of vestibular and auditory stimulation on the rems of rem sleep in autistic children, Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 29, 786791.

OssenkoppK. P.MacraeL. K.BettinM. A.KavaliersM. (1988). Body-rotation induced analgesia in male mice: effects of duration and type of rotation procedure, Brain Res. Bull. 21, 967972.

PalS.RosengrenS. M.ColebatchJ. G. (2009). Stochastic galvanic vestibular stimulation produces a small reduction in sway in Parkinson’s disease, J. Vestib. Res. 19, 137142.

PallaA.LenggenhagerB. (2014). Ways to investigate vestibular contributions to cognitive processes, Front. Integr. Neurosci. 8, 40. DOI:10.3389/fnint.2014.00040.

PanW.SomaR.KwakS.YamamotoY. (2008). Improvement of motor functions by noisy vestibular stimulation in central neurodegenerative disorders, J. Neurol. 255, 16571661.

PfeifferC.SerinoA.BlankeO. (2014). The vestibular system: a spatial reference for bodily self-consciousness, Front. Integr. Neurosci. 8, 31. DOI:10.3389/fnint.2014.00031.

PopeD.WhiteleyH. (2003). Developmental dyslexia, cerebellar/vestibular brain function and possible links to exercise-based interventions: a review, Eur. J. Spec. Needs Educ. 18, 109123.

PreussN.HaslerG.MastF. W. (2014a). Caloric vestibular stimulation modulates affective control and mood, Brain Stimulat. 7, 133140.

PreussN.MastF. W.HaslerG. (2014b). Purchase decision-making is modulated by vestibular stimulation, Front. Behav. Neurosci. 8, 51. DOI:10.3389/fnbeh.2014.00051.

PurkinjeJ. E. (1820). Beyträge zur näheren Kenntniss des Schwindels aus heautognostischen Daten, Med. Jahrb. Kais.-Könglichen Österr. Staates 6, 79125.

RamachandranV. S.McGeochP. (2007). Can vestibular caloric stimulation be used to treat apotemnophilia? Med. Hypotheses 69, 250252.

RamachandranV. S.McGeochP. D.WilliamsL. (2007a). Can vestibular caloric stimulation be used to treat Dejerine–Roussy syndrome? Med. Hypotheses 69, 486488.

RamachandranV. S.McGeochP. D.WilliamsL.ArcillaG. (2007b). Rapid relief of thalamic pain syndrome induced by vestibular caloric stimulation, Neurocase 13, 185188.

RiseyJ.BrinerW. (1990). Dyscalculia in patients with vertigo, J. Vestib. Res. 1, 3137.

RitvoE. R.OrnitzE. M.EviatarA.MarkhamC. H.BrownM. B.MasonA. (1969). Decreased postrotatory nystagmus in early infantile autism, Neurology 19, 653658.

RodeG.CharlesN.PereninM. T.VighettoA.TrilletM.AimardG. (1992). Partial remission of hemiplegia and somatoparaphrenia through vestibular stimulation in a case of unilateral neglect, Cortex 28, 203208.

RodeG.VallarG.RevolP.TiliketeC.Jacquin-CourtoisS.RossettiY.FarnèA. (2012). Facial macrosomatognosia and pain in a case of Wallenberg’s syndrome: selective effects of vestibular and transcutaneous stimulations, Neuropsychologia 50, 245253.

RordenC.KarnathH. O.DriverJ. (2001). Do neck-proprioceptive and caloric-vestibular stimulation influence covert visual attention in normals, as they influence visual neglect? Neuropsychologia 39, 364375.

RubensA. B. (1985). Caloric stimulation and unilateral visual neglect, Neurology 35, 10191024.

RubinsteinJ. T.TylerR. S. (2004). Electrical suppression of tinnitus, in: Tinnitus: Theory and Management, SnowJ. B. (Ed.), pp.  326335. B. C. Decker Inc., Hamilton, ON, Canada & Lewiston, New York, NY, USA.

SamoudiG.NissbrandtH.DutiaM. B.BergquistF. (2012). Noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation promotes GABA release in the substantia nigra and improves locomotion in hemiparkinsonian rats, PLoS One 7, e29308. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0029308.

SangF. Y. P.Jauregui-RenaudK.GreenD. A.BronsteinA. M.GrestyM. A. (2006). Depersonalisation/derealisation symptoms in vestibular disease, J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 77, 760766.

SchilderP. (1933). The vestiblar apparatus in neurosis and psychosis, J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 78, 123.

SchilderP. (1935). The Image and Appearance of the Human Body. Kegan Paul, London, UK.

SchmidtL.KellerI.UtzK. S.ArtingerF.StumpfO.KerkhoffG. (2013). Galvanic vestibular stimulation improves arm position sense in spatial neglect: a sham-stimulation-controlled study, Neurorehabil. Neural Repair 27, 497506.

SergeantJ. A.PiekJ. P.OosterlaanJ. (2006). ADHD and DCD: a relationship in need of research, Hum. Mov. Sci. 25, 7689.

SharotT.PhelpsE. A. (2004). How arousal modulates memory: disentangling the effects of attention and retention, Cogn. Affect. Behav. Neurosci. 4, 294306.

ShenS.LiuY.SunX.ZhaoW.SuY.YuS.LiuW. (2013). A biomechanical model of the inner ear: numerical simulation of the caloric test, ScientificWorldJournal 2013, 160205. DOI:10.1155/2013/160205.

SilberpfennigJ. (1941). Contributions to the problem of eye movements, Stereotact. Funct. Neurosurg. 4, 113.

SilverL. B. (1986). Controversial approaches to treating learning disabilities and attention deficit disorder, Am. J. Dis. Child. 140, 10451052.

SlavikB. A.Kitsuwa-LoweJ.DannerP. T.GreenJ.AyresA. J. (1984). Vestibular stimulation and eye contact in autistic children, Neuropediatrics 15, 3336.

SmithP. F. (2012). Dyscalculia and vestibular function, Med. Hypotheses 79, 493496.

SmithP. F.ZhengY. (2013). From ear to uncertainty: vestibular contributions to cognitive function, Front. Integr. Neurosci. 7, 84. DOI:10.3389/fnint.2013.00084.

SmithP. F.GeddesL. H.BaekJ.-H.DarlingtonC. L.ZhengY. (2010). Modulation of memory by vestibular lesions and galvanic vestibular stimulation, Front. Neurol. 1, 141. DOI:10.3389/fneur.2010.00141.

SnyderM.TsengY.BrandtC.CroghanC.HansonS.ConstantineR.KirbyL. (2001). A glider swing intervention for people with dementia, Geriatr. Nurs. 22, 8690.

Soza RiedA. M.AvilesM. (2007). Asymmetries of vestibular dysfunction in major depression, Neuroscience 144, 128134.

StewartD. (1965). A platform with six degrees of freedom, Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. 180, 371386.

ThorntonA.LeeP. (2000). Publication bias in meta-analysis: its causes and consequences, J. Clin. Epidemiol. 53, 207216.

ToddN. P.CodyF. W. (2000). Vestibular responses to loud dance music: a physiological basis of the “rock and roll threshold”? J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 107, 496500.

TrommsdorffJ. B. (1811). Almanach der Fortschritte, neuesten Erfindungen und Entdeckungen in Wissenschaften, Künsten, Manufakturen und Handwerken. G. A. Keyser, Erfurt, Germany.

UtzK. S.DimovaV.OppenländerK.KerkhoffG. (2010). Electrified minds: transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) as methods of non-invasive brain stimulation in neuropsychology — a review of current data and future implications, Neuropsychologia 48, 27892810.

UtzK. S.KorlussK.SchmidtL.RosenthalA.OppenländerK.KellerI.KerkhoffG. (2011). Minor adverse effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation in persons with stroke and healthy individuals, Brain Inj. 25, 10581069.

ValenteM. (2007). Maturational effects of the vestibular system: a study of rotary chair, computerized dynamic posturography, and vestibular evoked myogenic potentials with children, J. Am. Acad. Audiol. 18, 461481.

VallarG.BottiniG.SterziR. (2003). Anosognosia for left-sided motor and sensory deficits, motor neglect, and sensory hemiinattention: is there a relationship? Prog. Brain Res. 142, 289301.

ViethG. U. A. (1795). Versuch einer Encyklopädie der Leibesübungen. Hartmann, Berlin, Germany.

VoseR. H. (1981). Agoraphobia. Faber & Faber, London, UK.

VossU.FrenzelC.Koppehele-GosselJ.HobsonA. (2012). Lucid dreaming: an age-dependent brain dissociation, J. Sleep Res. 21, 634642.

VossU.HolzmannR.HobsonA.PaulusW.Koppehele-GosselJ.KlimkeA.NitscheM. A. (2014). Induction of self awareness in dreams through frontal low current stimulation of gamma activity, Nat. Neurosci. 17, 810812.

WadeN. J. (2000). William Charles Wells (1757–1817) and vestibular research before Purkinje and Flourens, J. Vestib. Res. 10, 127137.

WadeN. (2003). Destined for Distinguished Oblivion: The Scientific Vision of William Charles Wells (1757–1817). Springer Science & Business Media, Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany.

WadeN. J. (2005). The original spin doctors — the meeting of perception and insanity, Perception 34, 253260.

WadeN. J.BrozekJ.HoskovecJ. (2001). Purkinje’s Vision: The Dawning of Neuroscience. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ, USA.

WadeN. J.NorrsellU.PreslyA. (2005). Cox’s chair: “A moral and a medical mean in the treatment of maniacs”, Hist. Psychiatry 16, 7388.

WalshE. G. (1961). Role of the vestibular apparatus in the perception of motion on a parallel swing, J. Physiol. 155, 506513.

WaltherL. E.AsenovD. R.Di MartinoE. (2011). Caloric stimulation with near infrared radiation does not induce paradoxical nystagmus, Acta Otorhinolaryngol. 31, 9095.

WilkinsonD.KoP.KilduffP.McGlincheyR.MilbergW. (2005). Improvement of a face perception deficit via subsensory galvanic vestibular stimulation, J. Int. Neuropsychol. Soc. 11, 925929.

WilkinsonD.NichollsS.PattendenC.KilduffP.MilbergW. (2008). Galvanic vestibular stimulation speeds visual memory recall, Exp. Brain Res. 189, 243248.

WilkinsonD.ZubkoO.SakelM. (2009). Safety of repeated sessions of galvanic vestibular stimulation following stroke: a single-case study, Brain Inj. 23, 841845.

WilkinsonD.ZubkoO.DegutisJ.MilbergW.PotterJ. (2010). Improvement of a figure copying deficit during subsensory galvanic vestibular stimulation, J. Neuropsychol. 4, 107118.

WilkinsonD.MorrisR.MilbergW.SakelM. (2013). Caloric vestibular stimulation in aphasic syndrome, Front. Integr. Neurosci. 7, 99. DOI:10.3389/fnint.2013.00099.

WilkinsonD.ZubkoO.SakelM.CoultonS.HigginsT.PullicinoP. (2014). Galvanic vestibular stimulation in hemi-spatial neglect, Front. Integr. Neurosci. 8, 4. DOI:10.3389/fnint.2014.00004.

WinterL.KrugerT. H. C.LaurensJ.EnglerH.SchedlowskiM.StraumannD.WollmerM. A. (2012). Vestibular stimulation on a motion-simulator impacts on mood states, Front. Psychol. B, 499. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00499.

WinterL.WollmerM. A.LaurensJ.StraumannD.KrugerT. H. C. (2013). Cox’s chair revisited: can spinning alter mood states? Front. Psychiatry 4, 132. DOI:10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00132.

WoodwardS.TauberE. S.SpielmannA. J.ThorpyM. J. (1990). Effects of otolithic vestibular stimulation on sleep, Sleep 13, 533537.

YamamotoY.StruzikZ. R.SomaR.OhashiK.KwakS. (2005). Noisy vestibular stimulation improves autonomic and motor responsiveness in central neurodegenerative disorders, Ann. Neurol. 58, 175181.

YoungS. M. (1987). The effect of vestibular stimulation on Parkinsonian step length, Thesis, University of Ulster.

zu EulenburgP.BaumgärtnerU.TreedeR.-D.DieterichM. (2013). Interoceptive and multimodal functions of the operculo-insular cortex: tactile, nociceptive and vestibular representations, NeuroImage 83, 7586.

Figures

  • (A) A picture of Hallaran’s bed and chair used for therapeutic purposes in an asylum in the beginning of the 19th century (Hallaran, 1818), (B) the device used by Ernst Mach for experimental purposes (Mach, 1875) and (C) Bárány’s rotating chair that he used for clinical diagnostics (Bárány, 1907).

    View in gallery
  • (A) Bárány’s (1907) bedside caloric test showing (a) rubber bag to collect the water, (b) nozzle for water irrigation, and (c) balloon filled with water (see also Baloh, 2002). (B) Early galvanic stimulation device; here used in order to cure tinnitus (Grapengiesser, 1801).

    View in gallery

Information

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 14 14 8
Full Text Views 11 11 11
PDF Downloads 1 1 1
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0