Age Effects on Visuo-Haptic Length Discrimination: Evidence for Optimal Integration of Senses in Senior Adults

in Multisensory Research
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Demographic changes in most developed societies have fostered research on functional aging. While cognitive changes have been characterized elaborately, understanding of perceptual aging lacks behind. We investigated age effects on the mechanisms of how multiple sources of sensory information are merged into a common percept. We studied visuo-haptic integration in a length discrimination task. A total of 24 young (20–25 years) and 27 senior (69–77 years) adults compared standard stimuli to appropriate sets of comparison stimuli. Standard stimuli were explored under visual, haptic, or visuo-haptic conditions. The task procedure allowed introducing an intersensory conflict by anamorphic lenses. Comparison stimuli were exclusively explored haptically. We derived psychometric functions for each condition, determining points of subjective equality and discrimination thresholds. We notably evaluated visuo-haptic perception by different models of multisensory processing, i.e., the Maximum-Likelihood-Estimate model of optimal cue integration, a suboptimal integration model, and a cue switching model. Our results support robust visuo-haptic integration across the adult lifespan. We found suboptimal weighted averaging of sensory sources in young adults, however, senior adults exploited differential sensory reliabilities more efficiently to optimize thresholds. Indeed, evaluation of the MLE model indicates that young adults underweighted visual cues by more than 30%; in contrast, visual weights of senior adults deviated only by about 3% from predictions. We suggest that close to optimal multisensory integration might contribute to successful compensation for age-related sensory losses and provides a critical resource. Differentiation between multisensory integration during healthy aging and age-related pathological challenges on the sensory systems awaits further exploration.

Age Effects on Visuo-Haptic Length Discrimination: Evidence for Optimal Integration of Senses in Senior Adults

in Multisensory Research

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Figures

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    Illustration of apparatus and stimuli. (A) The standard box allowed visual, haptic, or visuo-haptic exploration of the standard stimulus; the comparison box allowed haptic exploration of the comparison stimulus; note that the soft drapery covering hand and fingers during haptic exploration is not depicted for reasons of clarity; both boxes were placed next to each other, respective left and right positions were balanced across all trials. (B) Rectangular plastic plates used for length judgements; all plates were 20 mm wide, but varied in length between 15.5 and 27 mm in steps of 1.5 mm, resulting in nine different plate sizes. (C) Overview of visual, haptic, and visuo-haptic conditions; the standard stimulus was explored under specified sensory conditions, the comparison stimulus was always explored only haptically; visual standard stimuli were combined either with a reducing or a magnifying lens, i.e., the 23 mm standard was reduced to about 20 mm and the 20 mm standard was magnified to about 23 mm; sizes of the comparison stimuli were chosen in order to cover the percept of the standard stimulus most appropriately.

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    Psychometric functions of length discrimination under different sensory conditions. (A) Visual conditions. (B) Haptic conditions. (C) Visuo-haptic conditions. Proportion of trials in which the comparison stimulus was perceived as longer than the standard stimulus is plotted against the length of the comparison stimulus. Left panels give data pooled across young and senior adults, respectively; right panels give data of an exemplary young adult and an exemplary senior adult. Triangles represent data for the set of the 23 mm standard stimulus; dots represent data for the set of the 20 mm standard stimulus. Performance of young adults is given in black; performance of senior adults is given in gray. The dashed horizontal lines illustrate critical performance levels: random discrimination, i.e., 50% judgments ‘longer’, defines the PSE; the length difference of the comparison stimulus between random discrimination and a proportion of 84% ‘longer’ judgements defines the JND, i.e., the discrimination threshold.

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    Psychometric parameters of length discrimination under different sensory conditions. Results for visual, haptic, and visuo-haptic conditions are illustrated in green, blue, and red, respectively. (A) PSEs. The left panel gives the data for the set of the 23 mm standard stimulus combined with a reducing lense; the right panel gives the data for the set of the 20 mm standard stimulus combined with a magnifying lense. The dashed horizontal lines illustrate the length of the standard stimulus; note that these reference lines give the physical length of the standard stimulus under haptic conditions and the visible length resulting from lense manipulation under visual conditions. (B) JNDs, i.e., discrimination thresholds. The left panel gives the data for the set of the 23 mm standard stimulus combined with a reducing lense; the right panel gives the data for the set of the 20 mm standard stimulus combined with a magnifying lense. Error bars: SEM.

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    Visual weights under visuo-haptic conditions. Dark gray bars give weights derived from measurements; light gray bars give optimal weights predicted by the MLE model. Note that weights for the sensory modalities add up to 1 and thus haptic weights are illustrated by the open bars. Error bars: SEM.

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    Comparison of predicted visuo-haptic JNDs derived from different models of multisensory perception and measured visuo-haptic JNDs. (A) Predicted JNDs plotted against measured JNDs for individual young adults. (B) Predicted JNDs plotted against measured JNDs for individual senior adults. Green dots represent predictions from the MLE model, light blue triangles give predictions from the suboptimal integration model, pink squares give prediction from the cue switching model. Colored lines represent linear regressions with the constant being set to 0. The dashed diagonal shows the identity line. (C) Average visuo-haptic JNDs predicted by different models. The dashed lines illustrate the measured visuo-haptic JNDs for young and senior adults, respectively. Error bars: SEM.

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