Changes in Regional Brain Grey-Matter Volume Following Successful Completion of a Sensori-Motor Intervention Targeted at Healthy and Fall-Prone Older Adults

in Multisensory Research
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

Previous studies have suggested that discrete cross-sensory events could be incorrectly combined in the brain of older adults with a history of falls, possibly undermining motor and balance control. Based on previous findings that multisensory integration is modifiable with practice, even in an ageing population, we designed a serious game, named CityQuest, to train typical, everyday multisensory processes including sensori-motor control, spatial navigation, obstacle avoidance and balance control. Played over several sessions, this game was shown to improve these functions in older adults with and without a history of falls, depending on the specific condition of the game on which they were trained. Here, using voxel-based morphometry analysis of anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, we investigated structural changes in the brain of a smaller group of older adults from those who successfully completed this five-week intervention. A grey-matter (GM) volume increase in the precentral gyrus, and GM volume reduction in the inferior temporal and orbitofrontal gyri, was found for all participants. Changes in GM volume within regions of the cerebellum were differentially associated with fall-prone and healthy older adults. Furthermore, a greater GM volume increase in the precentral gyrus was observed in participants who performed the full CityQuest intervention relative to those required to avoid obstacles only. Our results support previous evidence that multisensory training can affect structural changes in the older brain and have implications for programmes designed for the successful rehabilitation of perceptual and cognitive functions.

Multisensory Research

A Journal of Scientific Research on All Aspects of Multisensory Processing

Sections

References

AllisonL. K.KiemelT.JekaJ. J. (2006). Multisensory reweighting of vision and touch is intact in healthy and fall-prone older adults, Exp. Brain Res. 175, 342352.

Andrews-HannaJ. R.SnyderA. Z.VincentJ. L.LustigC.HeadD.RaichleM. E.BucknerR. L. (2007). Disruption of large-scale brain systems in advanced aging, Neuron 56, 924935.

AnsonE.JekaJ. (2015). Perspectives on aging vestibular function, Front. Neurol. 6, 269276.

AnsteyK. J.WoodJ.KerrG.CaldwellH.LordS. R. (2009). Different cognitive profiles for single compared with recurrent fallers without dementia, Neuropsychology 23, 500508.

AshburnerJ.FristonK. J. (2001). Why voxel-based morphometry should be used, Neuroimage 14, 12381243.

AshburnerJ.BarnesG.ChenC.-C.DaunizeauJ.FlandinG.FristonK.KiebelS.KilnerJ.LitvakV.MoranR.PennyW. (2014). SPM12 Manual. Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging. Institute of Neurology, UCL: The FIL Methods Group, London, UK.

BaeznerH.BlahakC.PoggesiA.PantoniL.InzitariD.ChabriatH.ErkinjunttiT.FazekasF.FerroJ. M.LanghorneP.O’BrienJ. (2008). Association of gait and balance disorders with age-related white matter changes. The LADIS study, Neurology 70, 935942.

BarM.KassamK. S.GhumanA. S.BoshyanJ.SchmidA. M.DaleA. M.HämäläinenM. S.MarinkovicK.SchacterD. L.RosenB. R.HalgrenE. (2006). Top-down facilitation of visual recognition, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 103, 449454.

BarnettA.SmithB.LordS. R.WilliamsM.BaumandA. (2003). Community-based group exercise improves balance and reduces falls in at-risk older people: a randomised controlled trial, Age Ageing 32, 407414.

BarrettM. M.DohenyE. P.SettiA.MaguinnessC.ForanT. G.KennyR. A.NewellF. N. (2013). Reduced vision selectively impairs spatial updating in fall-prone older adults, Multisens. Res. 26, 6994.

BatesS. L.WolbersT. (2014). How cognitive aging affects multisensory integration of navigational cues, Neurobiol. Aging 35, 27612769.

BeauchetO.BardenJ.Liu-AmbroseT.ChesterV. L.SzturmT.AllaliG. (2016). The relationship between hippocampal volume and static postural sway: results from the GAIT study, Age 38, 19.

BerryS. D.MillerR. R. (2008). Falls: epidemiology, pathophysiology, and relationship to fracture, Curr. Osteoporosis Rep. 6, 149154.

BlahakC.BaeznerH.PantoniL.PoggesiA.ChabriatH.ErkinjunttiT.FazekasF.FerroJ. M.LanghorneP.O’BrienJ.VisserM. C. (2009). Deep frontal and periventricular age related white matter changes but not basal ganglia and infratentorial hyperintensities are associated with falls: cross sectional results from the LADIS study, J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 80, 608613.

BoisgontierM. P.ChevalB.van RuitenbeekP.LevinO.RenaudO.ChanalJ.SwinnenS. P. (2016). Whole-brain grey matter density predicts balance stability irrespective of age and protects older adults from falling, Gait Posture 45, 143150.

BoykeJ.DriemeyerJ.GaserC.BüchelC.MayA. (2008). Training-induced brain structure changes in the elderly, J. Neurosci. 28, 70317035.

BucknerR. L. (2013). The cerebellum and cognitive function: 25 years of insight from anatomy and neuroimaging, Neuron 80, 807815.

BucknerR. L.KrienenF. M.CastellanosA.DiazJ. C.YeoB. T. (2011). The organization of the human cerebellum estimated by intrinsic functional connectivity, J. Neurophysiol. 106, 23222345.

CadoreE. L.Rodríguez-MañasL.SinclairA.IzquierdoM. (2013). Effects of different exercise interventions on risk of falls, gait ability, and balance in physically frail older adults: a systematic review, Rejuvenation Res. 16, 105114.

CenciariniM.PeterkaR. J. (2006). Stimulus-dependent changes in the vestibular contribution to human postural control, J. Neurophysiol. 95, 27332750.

CenciariniM.LoughlinP. J.SpartoP. J.RedfernM. S. (2010). Stiffness and damping in postural control increase with age, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 57, 267275.

ChenA.DeAngelisG. C.AngelakiD. E. (2010). Macaque parieto-insular vestibular cortex: responses to self-motion and optic flow, J. Neurosci. 30, 30223042.

CouthS.GowenE.PoliakoffE. (2016). Investigating the spatial and temporal modulation of visuotactile interactions in older adults, Exp. Brain Res. 234, 12331248.

DavisJ. C.NagamatsuL. S.HsuC. L.BeattieB. L.Liu-AmbroseT. (2012). Self-efficacy is independently associated with brain volume in older women, Age Ageing 41, 495501.

DecetyJ.GrèzesJ. (1999). Neural mechanisms subserving the perception of human actions, Trends Cogn. Sci. 3, 172178.

D’EspositoM.DeouellL. Y.GazzaleyA. (2003). Alterations in the BOLD fMRI signal with ageing and disease: a challenge for neuroimaging, Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 4, 863872.

DieterichM.BrandtT. (2015). The bilateral central vestibular system: its pathways, functions, and disorders, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1343, 1026.

DoumasM.KrampeR. T. (2010). Adaptation and reintegration of proprioceptive information in young and older adults’ postural control, J. Neurophysiol. 104, 19691977.

DraganskiB.MayA. (2008). Training-induced structural changes in the adult human brain, Behav. Brain Res. 192, 137142.

DraganskiB.GaserC.BuschV.SchuiererG.BogdahnU.MayA. (2004). Neuroplasticity: changes in grey matter induced by training, Nature 427(6972), 311312.

DuarteA.HayasakaS.DuA.SchuffN.JahngG.-H.KramerJ.MillerB.WeinerM. (2006). Volumetric correlares of memory and executive function in normal elderly, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease, Neurosci. Lett. 406, 6065.

EggenbergerP.WolfM.SchumannM.de BruinE. D. (2016). Exergame and balance training modulate prefrontal brain activity during walking and enhance executive function in older adults, Front. Aging Neurosci. 8, 66. DOI:10.3389/fnagi.2016.00066.

ElliottM. T.WingA. M.WelchmanA. E. (2011). The effect of ageing on multisensory integration for the control of movement timing, Exp. Brain Res. 213, 291298.

ElliottR.DolanR. J.FrithC. D. (2000). Dissociable functions in the medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortex: evidence from human neuroimaging studies, Cereb. Cortex 10, 308317.

EricksonK. I.ColcombeS. J.WadhwaR.BhererL.PetersonM. S.ScalfP. E.KimJ. S.AlvaradoM.KramerA. F. (2007). Training-induced plasticity in older adults: effects of training on hemispheric asymmetry, Neurobiol. Aging 28, 272283.

EricksonK. I.VossM. W.PrakashR. S.BasakC.SzaboA.ChaddockL.KimJ. S.HeoS.AlvesH.WhiteS. M.WojcickiT. R. (2011). Exercise training increases size of hippocampus and improves memory, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 108, 30173022.

GillespieL. D.RobertsonM. C.GillespieW. J.SherringtonC.GatesS.ClemsonL. M.LambS. E. (2012). Interventions for preventing falls in older people living in the community, Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 9, CD007146. DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD007146.pub3.

GlicksteinM. (2007). What does the cerebellum really do? Curr. Biol. 17, R824R827.

GoodC. D.JohnsrudeI. S.AshburnerJ.HensonR. N.FristenK. J.FrackowiakR. S. (2002a). A voxel-based morphometric study of ageing in 465 normal adult human brains, in: 5th IEEE EMBS International Summer School on Biomedical Imaging, 2002. (16 pp). DOI:10.1109/SSBI.2002.1233974.

GoodC. D.ScahillR. I.FoxN. C.AshburnerJ.FristonK. J.ChanD.CrumW. R.RossorM. N.FrackowiakR. S. (2002b). Automatic differentiation of anatomical patterns in the human brain: validation with studies of degenerative dementias, Neuroimage 17, 2946.

GradyC. L. (2000). Functional brain imaging and age-related changes in cognition, Biol. Psychol. 54, 259281.

GradyC. L. (2008). Cognitive neuroscience of aging, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1124, 127144.

GrèzesJ. (1998). Top down effect of strategy on the perception of human biological motion: a PET investigation, Cogn. Neuropsychol. 15, 553582.

GrüsserO. J.PauseM.SchreiterU. (1990). Localization and responses of neurones in the parieto-insular vestibular cortex of awake monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), J. Physiol. 430, 537557.

GuldinW. O.GrüsserO. J. (1998). Is there a vestibular cortex? Trends Neurosci. 21, 254259.

GusiN.AdsuarJ. C.CorzoH.del Pozo-CruzB.OlivaresP. R.ParracaJ. A. (2012). Balance training reduces fear of falling and improves dynamic balance and isometric strength in institutionalised older people: a randomised trial, J. Physiother. 58, 97104.

HabasC.KamdarN.NguyenD.PraterK.BeckmannC. F.MenonV.GreiciusM. D. (2009). Distinct cerebellar contributions to intrinsic connectivity networks, J. Neurosci. 29, 85868594.

HeddenT.GabrieliJ. D. (2004). Insights into the ageing mind: a view from cognitive neuroscience, Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 5, 8796.

HermanT.MirelmanA.GiladiN.SchweigerA.HausdorffJ. M. (2010). Executive control deficits as a prodrome to falls in healthy older adults: a prospective study linking thinking, walking, and falling, J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. 65, 10861092.

HessJ. A.WoollacottM. (2005). Effect of high-intensity strength-training on functional measures of balance ability in balance-impaired older adults, J. Manipulative Physiol. Ther. 28, 582590.

HorakF. B. (2006). Postural orientation and equilibrium: what do we need to know about neural control of balance to prevent falls?, Age Ageing 35, 711.

HorakF. B.ShupertC. L.MirkaA. (1989). Components of postural dyscontrol in the elderly: a review, Neurobiol Aging 10, 727738.

IlgR.WohlschlägerA. M.GaserC.LiebauY.DaunerR.WöllerA.ZimmerC.ZihlJ.MühlauM. (2008). Gray matter increase induced by practice correlates with task-specific activation: a combined functional and morphometric magnetic resonance imaging study, J. Neurosci. 28, 42104215.

JekaJ.OieK. S.KiemelT. (2000). Multisensory information for human postural control: integrating touch and vision, Exp. Brain Res. 134, 107125.

JekaJ. J.OieK. S.KiemelT. (2008). Asymmetric adaptation with functional advantage in human sensorimotor control, Exp. Brain Res. 191, 453463.

JekaJ. J.AllisonL. K.KiemelT. (2010). The dynamics of visual reweighting in healthy and fall-prone older adults, J. Mot. Behav. 42, 197208.

KahaneP.HoffmannD.MinottiL.BerthozA. (2003). Reappraisal of the human vestibular cortex by cortical electrical stimulation study, Ann. Neurol. 54, 615624.

KarimH. T.SpartoP. J.AizensteinH. J.FurmanJ. M.HuppertT. J.EricksonK. I.LoughlinP. J. (2014). Functional MR imaging of a simulated balance task, Brain Res. 1555, 2027.

KennyR. A.DishonghT.NewellF.Ni ScanailC. (2009). Research to reduce falls in older people: the TRIL centre, Geriatr. Med. 39, 326327.

KreiselS. H.BlahakC.BäznerH.InzitariD.PantoniL.PoggesiA.ChabriatH.ErkinjunttiT.FazekasF.FerroJ. M.LanghorneP. (2013). Deterioration of gait and balance over time: the effects of age-related white matter change — the LADIS study, Cerebrovasc. Dis. 35, 544553.

LacourM.Bernard-DemanzeL.DumitrescuM. (2008). Posture control, aging, and attention resources: models and posture-analysis methods, Neurophysiol. Clin. 38, 411421.

LemaîtreH.CrivelloF.GrassiotB.AlpérovitchA.TzourioC.MazoyerB. (2005). Age-and sex-related effects on the neuroanatomy of healthy elderly, Neuroimage 26, 900911.

LopezC.BlankeO. (2011). The thalamocortical vestibular system in animals and humans, Brain Res. Rev. 67, 119146.

LopezC.HaljeP.BlankeO. (2008). Body ownership and embodiment: vestibular and multisensory mechanisms, Neurophysiol. Clin. 38, 149161.

LopezC.BlankeO.MastF. W. (2012). The human vestibular cortex revealed by coordinate-based activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis, Neuroscience 212, 159179.

LordS. R. (2006). Visual risk factors for falls in older people, Age Ageing 35, 4245.

LövdénM.SchaeferS.NoackH.BodammerN. C.KühnS.HeinzeH. J.DüzelE.BäckmanL.LindenbergerU. (2012). Spatial navigation training protects the hippocampus against age-related changes during early and late adulthood, Neurobiol. Aging 33, 620.e9620.e22. DOI:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2011.02.013.

LuX.MiyachiS.ItoY.NambyA.TakadaM. (2007). Topographic distribution of output neurons in cerebellar nuclei and cortex to somatotopic map of primary motor cortex, Eur. J. Neurosci. 25, 23742383.

LustigC.ShahP.SeidlerR.Reuter-LorenzP. A. (2009). Aging, training, and the brain: a review and future directions, Neuropsychol. Rev. 19, 504522.

MagonS.DonathL.GaetanoL.ThoeniA.RadueE. W.FaudeO.SprengerT. (2016). Striatal functional connectivity changes following specific balance training in elderly people: MRI results of a randomized controlled pilot study, Gait Posture 49, 334339.

MahboobinA.LoughlinP. J.RedfernM. S.SpartoP. J. (2005). Sensory re-weighting in human postural control during moving-scene perturbations, Exp. Brain Res. 167, 260267.

MahoneyJ. R.VergheseJ.DumasK.WangC.HoltzerR. (2012). The effect of multisensory cues on attention in aging, Brain Res. 1472, 6373.

MaldjianJ. A.LaurientiP. J.KraftR. A.BurdetteJ. H. (2003). An automated method for neuroanatomic and cytoarchitectonic atlas-based interrogation of fMRI data sets, Neuroimage 19, 12331239.

MasdeuJ. C.WolfsonL.LantosG.TobinJ. N.GroberE.WhippleR.AmermanP. (1989). Brain white-matter changes in the elderly prone to falling, Arch. Neurol. 46, 12921296.

MaykaM. A.CorcosD. M.LeurgansS. E.VaillancourtD. E. (2006). Three-dimensional locations and boundaries of motor and premotor cortices as defined by functional brain imaging: a meta-analysis, Neuroimage 31, 14531474.

McGovernD. P.RoudaiaE.StapletonJ.McGinnityT. M.NewellF. N. (2014). The sound-induced flash illusion reveals dissociable age-related effects in multisensory integration, Front. Aging Neurosci. 6, 250. DOI:10.3389/fnagi.2014.00250.

MergnerT.MaurerC.PeterkaR. J. (2003). A multisensory posture control model of human upright stance, Progr. Brain Res. 142, 189201.

MerrimanN. A. (2016). Assessing Cognitive Factors and Individual Differences that Modulate Spatial Navigation Ability in Older Adults. Unpublished thesis, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland.

MerrimanN. A.WhyattC.SettiA.CraigC.NewellF. N. (2015). Successful balance training is associated with improved multisensory function in fall-prone older adults, Comput. Hum. Behav. 45, 192203.

MerrimanN. A.RoudaiaE.RomagnoliM.OrvietoI.NewellF. N. (subm.). Acceptability of a custom-designed game, CityQuest, aimed at improving balance confidence and spatial cognition in fall-prone and healthy older adults.

MerrimanN. A.RoudaiaE.RomagnoliM.OrvietoI.NewellF. N. (in prep.). A custom-designed game intervention, ‘CityQuest’, is associated with improved spatial memory performance in older adults.

MiharaM.MiyaiI.HatakenakaM.KubotaK.SakodaS. (2008). Role of the prefrontal cortex in human balance control, Neuroimage 43, 329336.

MirelmanA.HermanT.BrozgolM.DorfmanM.SprecherE.SchweigerA.GiladiN.HausdorffJ. M. (2012). Executive function and falls in older adults: new findings from a five-year prospective study link fall risk to cognition, PloS One 7, e40297. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0040297.

MozolicJ. L.HugenschmidtC. E.PeifferA. M.LaurientiP. J. (2012). Multisensory integration and aging, in: The Neural Bases of Multisensory Processes, MurrayM. M.WallaceM. T. (Eds), pp.  381395. CRC Press/Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL, USA.

NagamatsuL. S.HsuC. L.HandyT. C.Liu-AmbroseT. (2011). Functional neural correlates of reduced physiological falls risk, Behav. Brain Funct. 7, 37. DOI:10.1186/1744-9081-7-37.

NagamatsuL. S.BoydL. A.HsuC. L.HandyT. C.Liu-AmbroseT. (2013). Overall reductions in functional brain activation are associated with falls in older adults: an fMRI study, Front. Aging Neurosci. 5, 91. DOI:https://doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2013.00091.

NagamatsuL. S.HsuC. L.VossM. W.ChanA.BolandzadehN.HandyT. C.GrafP.BeattieB. L.Liu-AmbroseT. (2016). The neurocognitive basis for impaired dual-task performance in senior fallers, Front. Aging Neurosci. 8, 20. DOI:10.3389/fnagi.2016.00020.

NasreddineZ. S.PhillipsN. A.BédirianV.CharbonneauS.WhiteheadV.CollinI.CummingsJ. L.ChertkowH. (2005). The montreal cognitive assessment, MoCA: a brief screening tool for mild cognitive impairment, J. Am. Ger. Soc. 53, 695699.

O’ConnorK. W.LoughlinP. J.RedfernM. S.SpartoP. J. (2008). Postural adaptations to repeated optic flow stimulation in older adults, Gait Posture 28, 385391.

OieK. S.KiemelT.JekaJ. J. (2002). Multisensory fusion: simultaneous re-weighting of vision and touch for the control of human posture, Cogn. Brain Res. 14, 164176.

O’ReillyJ. X.BeckmannC. F.TomassiniV.RamnaniN.Johansen-BergH. (2010). Distinct and overlapping functional zones in the cerebellum defined by resting state functional connectivity, Cereb. Cortex 20, 953965.

ParkD. C.Reuter-LorenzP. (2009). The adaptive brain: aging and neurocognitive scaffolding, Annu. Rev. Psychol. 60, 173196.

PotocanacZ.HoogkamerW.CarpesF. P.PijnappelsM.VerschuerenS. M.DuysensJ. (2014). Response inhibition during avoidance of virtual obstacles while walking, Gait Posture 39, 641644.

PowersA. R.IIIHillock-DunnA.WallaceM. T. (2016). Generalization of multisensory perceptual learning, Sci. Rep. 6, 23374. DOI:10.1038/srep23374.

PruessmannK. P.WeigerM.ScheideggerM. B.BoesigerP. (1999). SENSE: sensitivity encoding for fast MRI, Magn. Reson. Med. 42, 952962.

RamnaniN. (2006). The primate cortico-cerebellar system: anatomy and function, Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 7, 511522.

RazN.LindenbergerU.RodrigueK. M.KennedyK. M.HeadD.WilliamsonA.DahleC.GerstorfD.AckerJ. D. (2005). Regional brain changes in aging healthy adults: general trends, individual differences and modifiers, Cereb. Cortex 15, 16761689.

RosanoC.AizensteinH. J.StudenskiS.NewmanA. B. (2007). A regions-of-interest volumetric analysis of mobility limitations in community-dwelling older adults, J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. 62, 10481055.

RosanoC.AizensteinH.BrachJ.LongenbergerA.StudenskiS.NewmanA. B. (2008). Gait measures indicate underlying focal gray matter atrophy in the brain of older adults, J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. 63, 13801388.

RosanoC.StudenskiS. A.AizensteinH. J.BoudreauR. M.LongstrethW. T.NewmanA. B. (2012). Slower gait, slower information processing and smaller prefrontal area in older adults, Age Ageing 41, 5864.

SalatD. H.KayeJ. A.JanowskyJ. S. (2002). Greater orbital prefrontal volume selectively predicts worse working memory performance in older adults, Cereb. Cortex 12, 494505.

SalatD. H.BucknerR. L.SnyderA. Z.GreveD. N.DesikanR. S.BusaE.MorrisJ. C.DaleA. M.FischlB. (2004). Thinning of the cerebral cortex in aging, Cereb. Cortex 14, 721730.

SalthouseT. A. (2011). Neuroanatomical substrates of age-related cognitive decline, Psychol. Bull. 135, 753784.

SchieberF. (2006). Vision and aging, in: Handbook of the Psychology of Aging, 6th edn. BirrenJ. E.SchaieK. W. (Eds), pp.  129161. Elsevier Academic Press, Burlington, MA, USA.

ScholzJ.KleinM. C.BehrensT. E.Johansen-BergH. (2009). Training induces changes in white-matter architecture, Nat. Neurosci. 12, 13701371.

SeidlerR. D.BernardJ. A.BurutoluT. B.FlingB. W.GordonM. T.GwinJ. T.KwakY.LippsD. B. (2010). Motor control and aging: links to age-related brain structural, functional, and biochemical effects, Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 34, 721733.

SettiA.BurkeK. E.KennyR. A.NewellF. N. (2011). Is inefficient multisensory processing associated with falls in older people? Exp. Brain Res. 209, 375384.

SettiA.StapletonJ.LeahyD.WalshC.KennyR. A.NewellF. N. (2014). Improving the efficiency of multisensory integration in older adults: audio-visual temporal discrimination training reduces susceptibility to the sound-induced flash illusion, Neuropsychologia 61, 259268.

ShamsL.KamitaniY.ShimojoS. (2000). Illusions: what you see is what you hear, Nature 408(6814), 788.

SherringtonC.TiedemannA.FairhallN.CloseJ. C.LordS. R. (2011). Exercise to prevent falls in older adults: an updated meta-analysis and best practice recommendations, N S W Public Health Bull. 22, 7883.

SimoneauM.TeasdaleN.BourdinC.BardC.FleuryM.NougierV. (1999). Aging and postural control: postural perturbations caused by changing the visual anchor, J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 47, 235240.

SiuK.-C.LugadeV.ChouL. S.van DonkelaarP.WoollacottM. (2007). Cognitive functions impact gait stability during obstructed walking in elderly, J. Biomech. 40(Suppl. 2), S166.

SPM12 (2014). Department of Cognitive Neurology, ION, London, UK: http://www.fil.ion.ucl.ac.uk/spm. Retrieved September 1, 2017.

StapletonJ.SettiA.DohenyE. P.KennyR. A.NewellF. N. (2014). A standing posture is associated with increased susceptibility to the sound-induced flash illusion in fall-prone older adults, Exp. Brain Res. 232, 423434.

StarrJ. M.LeaperS. A.MurrayA. D.LemmonH. A.StaffR. T.DearyI. J.WhalleyL. J. (2003). Brain white matter lesions detected by magnetic resosnance imaging are associated with balance and gait speed, J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 74, 9498.

TaniwakiT.OkayamaA.YoshiuraT.TogaoO.NakamuraY.YamasakiT.OgataK.ShigetoH.OhyagiY.KiraJ.TobimatsuS. (2007). Age-related alterations of the functional interactions within the basal ganglia and cerebellar motor loops in vivo, Neuroimage 36, 12631276.

TaubertM.DraganskiB.AnwanderA.MüllerK.HorstmannA.VillringerA.RagertP. (2010). Dynamic properties of human brain structure: learning-related changes in cortical areas and associated fiber connections, J. Neurosci. 30, 1167011677.

TaubertM.LohmannG.MarguliesD. S.VillringerA.RagertP. (2011). Long-term effects of motor training on resting-state networks and underlying brain structure, Neuroimage 57, 14921498.

TaubertM.MehnertJ.PlegerB.VillringerA. (2016). Rapid and specific gray matter changes in M1 induced by balance training, Neuroimage 133, 399407.

TeasdaleN.SimoneauM. (2001). Attentional demands for postural control: the effects of aging and sensory reintegration, Gait Posture 14, 203210.

ThomasC.BakerC. I. (2013). Teaching an adult brain new tricks: a critical review of evidence for training-dependent structural plasticity in humans, Neuroimage 73, 225236.

TuerkC.ZhangH.SachdevP.LordS. R.BrodatyH.WenW.DelbaereK. (2016). Regional gray matter volumes are related to concern about falling in older people: a voxel-based morphometric study, J. Gerontol. Ser. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. 71, 138144.

United Nations (2015). Word Population Ageing. United Nations, New York, NY, USA.

WengerE.SchaeferS.NoackH.KühnS.MårtenssonJ.HeinzeH. J.DüzelE.BäckmanL.LindenbergerU.LövdénM. (2012). Cortical thickness changes following spatial navigation training in adulthood and aging, Neuroimage 59, 33893397.

WhyattC.MerrimanN. A.YoungW. R.NewellF. N.CraigC. (2015). A Wii bit of fun: a novel platform to deliver effective balance training to older adults, Games Health J. 4, 423433.

World Health Organisation (2007). WHO Global Report on Falls Prevention in Older Age. World Health Organisation, Geneva, Switzerland.

YamadaM.IchihashiN. (2010). Predicting the probability of falls in community-dwelling elderly individuals using the trail-walking test, Environ. Health Prev. Med. 15, 386391.

YoungW.FergusonS.BraultS.CraigC. (2011). Assessing and training standing balance in older adults: a novel approach using the ‘Nintendo Wii’ Balance Board, Gait Posture 33, 303305.

YoungW. R.WilliamsA. M. (2015). How fear of falling can increase fall-risk in older adults: applying psychological theory to practical observations, Gait Posture 41, 712.

ZwergalA.LinnJ.XiongG.BrandtT.StruppM.JahnK. (2012). Aging of human supraspinal locomotor and postural control in fMRI, Neurobiol. Aging 33, 10731084.

Figures

  • An illustration of the characteristics of the CityQuest game. In (a) a participant is seen standing on the Wii balance board (see insert) which was interfaced with the visual presentation of the game. A shift in balance was required to navigate a virtual avatar on the screen (shown in b) through a city to locate a target landmark (e.g., the pharmacy). (c) The participant was also required to avoid static and dynamic obstacles, including pedestrians, through a shift in balance.

    View in gallery
  • A GM volume increase was observed in the precentral gyrus following completion of a five-week spatial navigation intervention.

    View in gallery
  • An illustration of the cortical regions that demonstrated a significant decrease in GM volume following completion of a five-week spatial navigation intervention, including the inferior temporal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus and in two clusters within the orbitofrontal cortex.

    View in gallery

Information

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 17 17 17
Full Text Views 10 10 10
PDF Downloads 2 2 2
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0