High-Tempo and Stinky: High Arousal Sound–Odor Congruence Affects Product Memory

In: Multisensory Research

Abstract

The tendency to match different sensory modalities together can be beneficial for marketing. Here we assessed the effect of sound–odor congruence on people’s attitude and memory for products of a familiar and unfamiliar brand. Participants smelled high- and low-arousal odors and then saw an advertisement for a product of a familiar or unfamiliar brand, paired with a high- or low-arousal jingle. Participants’ attitude towards the advertisement, the advertised product, and the product’s brand was measured, as well as memory for the product. In general, no sound–odor congruence effect was found on attitude, irrespective of brand familiarity. However, congruence was found to affect recognition: when a high-arousal odor and a high-arousal sound were combined, participants recognized products faster than in the other conditions. In addition, familiar brands were recognized faster than unfamiliar brands, but only when sound or odor arousal was high. This study provides insight into the possible applications of sound–odor congruence for marketing by demonstrating its potential to influence product memory.

  • AravindaC. and KrishnaiahR. V. (2013). Smell-o-vision — the future digital display deviceInt J. Comput. Sci. Mobile Comput. 2227234.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • AuvrayM. and SpenceC. (2008). The multisensory perception of flavorConsc. Cogn. 1710161031.

  • BakerJ.LevyM. and GrewalD. (1992). An experimental approach to making retail store environmental decisionsJ. Retail 68445460.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BatesD.MaechlerM.BolkerB. and WalkerS. (2015). Fitting linear mixed-effects models using lme4J. Stat. Softw. 67148.

  • BatraR. and SinhaI. (2000). Consumer-level factors moderating the success of private label brandsJ. Retail. 76175191.

  • BelkinK.MartinR.KempS. E. and GilbertA. N. (1997). Auditory pitch as a perceptual analogue to odor qualityPsychol. Sci. 8340342.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BensafiM.RoubyC.FargetV.BertrandB.VigourouxM. and HolleyA. (2002). Autonomic nervous system responses to odours: the role of pleasantness and arousalChem. Senses 27703709.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BerlyneD. (1960). Conflict, Arousal, and Curiosity. McGraw-HillNew York, NY, USA.

  • BiswasD. and SzocsC. (2019). The smell of healthy choices: cross-modal sensory compensation effects of ambient scent on food purchasesJ. Mark. Res. 56123141.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BiswasD.LundK. and SzocsC. (2019). Sounds like a healthy retail atmospheric strategy: effects of ambient music and background noise on food salesJ. Acad. Mark. Sci. 473755.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BradfordK. D. and DesrochersD. M. (2009). The use of scents to influence consumers: the sense of using scents to make centsJ. Bus. Ethics 90141153.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BradleyM. M.GreenwaldM. K.PetryM. C. and LangP. J. (1992). Remembering pictures: pleasure and arousal in memoryJ. Exp. Psychol. Learn. Mem. Cogn. 18379390.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ChenY. C. and SpenceC. (2010). When hearing the bark helps to identify the dog: semantically-congruent sounds modulate the identification of masked picturesCognition 114389404.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ChengJ.SunA. and ZengD. (2010). Information overload and viral marketing: countermeasures and strategies, in: Third International Conference on Social Computing, Behavioral Modeling and Prediction, SPB 2010, pp. 108117. Advances in Social ComputingBethesda, MD, USA.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CrisinelA.-S.CosserS.KingS.JonesR.PetrieJ. and SpenceC. (2012). A bittersweet symphony: systematically modulating the taste of food by changing the sonic properties of the soundtrack playing in the backgroundFood Qual. Pref. 24201204.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CrisinelA.-S.JacquierC.DeroyO. and SpenceC. (2013). Composing with cross-modal correspondences: music and odors in concertChemosens. Percept. 64552.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DaviesB. J.KooijmanD. and WardP. (2003). The sweet smell of success: olfaction in retailingJ. Mark. Manag. 19611627.

  • de LangeM. A.DebetsL. W.RuitenburgK. and HollandR. W. (2012). Making less of a mess: scent exposure as a tool for behavioral changeSoc. Influ. 79097.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • De WijkR. A.SmeetsP. A.PoletI. A.HolthuysenN. T.ZoonJ. and VingerhoedsM. H. (2018). Aroma effects on food choice task behavior and brain responses to bakery food product cuesFood Qual. Pref. 68304314.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • De WulfK.Odekerken-SchröderG.GoedertierF. and Van OsselG. (2005). Consumer perceptions of store brands versus national brandsJ. Consum. Mark. 22223232.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DeroyO.CrisinelA.-S. and SpenceC. (2013). Crossmodal correspondences between odors and contingent features: odors, musical notes, and geometrical shapesPsychon. Bull. Rev. 20878896.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DyerG. (1982). Advertising as Communication. RoutledgeLondon, UK.

  • FeethamP. and GendallP. (2013). The positioning of premium private label brandsMark. Soc. Res. 212837.

  • FiegelA.MeullenetJ.-F.HarringtonR. J.HumbleR. and SeoH.-S. (2014). Background music genre can modulate flavor pleasantness and overall impression of food stimuliAppetite 76144152.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FransenM. L.VerleghP. W. J.KirmaniA. and SmitE. G. (2015). A typology of consumer strategies for resisting advertising, and a review of mechanisms for countering themInt. J. Advert. 34616.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GabrielssonA. (2001). Emotions in strong experiences with music, in: Music and Emotion: Theory and ResearchP. N. Juslin and J. A. Sloboda (Eds), pp. 431449. Oxford University PressOxford, UK.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HagtvedtH. and BraselS. A. (2016). Cross-modal communication: sound frequency influences consumer responses to color lightnessJ. Mark. Res. 53551562.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HollandR. W.HendriksM. and AartsH. (2005). Smells like clean spirit: nonconscious effects of scent on cognition and behaviorPsychol. Sci. 16689693.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HoyerW. D. and BrownS. P. (1990). Effects of brand awareness on choice for a common, repeat-purchase productJ. Consum. Res. 17141148.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KarrayS. and Martín-HerránG. (2009). A dynamic model for advertising and pricing competition between national and store brandsEur. J. Oper. Res. 193451467.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KellarisJ. J. and KentR. J. (1993). An exploratory investigation of responses elicited by music varying in tempo, tonality, and textureJ. Consum. Psychol. 2381401.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KentR. J. and AllenC. T. (1994). Competitive interference effects in consumer memory for advertising: the role of brand familiarityJ. Market. 5897105.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KhalfaS.IsabelleP.Jean-PierreB. and ManonR. (2002). Event-related skin conductance responses to musical emotions in humansNeurosci. Lett. 328145149.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KrishnaA.ElderR. S. and CaldaraC. (2010). Feminine to smell but masculine to touch? Multisensory congruence and its effect on aesthetic experienceJ. Consum. Psychol. 20410418.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LangP. J.GreenwaldM. K.BradleyM. M. and HammA. O. (1993). Looking at pictures: affective, facial, visceral, and behavioral reactionsPsychophysiology 30261273.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LavioletteE. M.Radu LefebvreM. and BrunelO. (2012). The impact of story bound entrepreneurial role models on self-efficacy and entrepreneurial intentionInt. J. Entrep. Behavi. Res. 18720742.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LiljenquistK.ZhongC.-B. and GalinskyA. D. (2010). The smell of virtue: clean scents promote reciprocity and charityPsychol. Sci. 21381383.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LindstromM. (2005). Broad sensory brandingProd. Brand Manag. 148487.

  • MandlerG. (1980). Recognizing: the judgment of previous occurrencePsychol. Rev. 87252271.

  • MandlerG. (1982). The structure of value: accounting for taste, in: Affect and Cognition: the 17th Annual Carnegie SymposiumM. S. Clark and S. T. Fiske (Eds), pp. 336. Lawrence Erlbaum AssociatesHillsdale, NJ, USA.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MathyF. and FeldmanJ. (2012). What’s magic about magic numbers? Chunking and data compression in short-term memoryCognition 122346362.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MattilaA. S. and WirtzJ. (2001). Congruency of scent and music as a driver of in-store evaluations and behaviorJ. Retail. 77273289.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McDanielC. and BakerR. C. (1977). Convenience food packaging and the perception of product qualityJ. Market. 415758.

  • MeredithM. A.NemitzJ. W. and SteinB. E. (1987). Determinants of multisensory integration in superior colliculus neurons. I. Temporal factorsJ. Neurosci. 732153229.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Meyers-LevyJ. and TyboutA. M. (1989). Schema congruity as a basis for product evaluationJ. Consum. Res. 163954.

  • MikuttaC. A.SchwabS.NiederhauserS.WuermleO.StrikW. and AltorferA. (2013). Music, perceived arousal, and intensity: psychophysiological reactions to Chopin’s “Tristesse”Psychophysiology 50909919.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MillerG. A. (1956). The magical number seven, plus or minus two: some limits on our capacity for processing informationPsychol. Rev. 638197.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MitchellD. J.KahnB. E. and KnaskoS. C. (1995). There’s something in the air: effects of congruent or incongruent ambient odor on consumer decision makingJ. Consum. Res. 22229238.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MoeranB. (2007). Marketing scents and the anthropology of smellSoc. Anthrop. 15153168.

  • MorrinM. and RatneshwarS. (2000). The impact of ambient scent on evaluation, attention, and memory for familiar and unfamiliar brandsJ. Bus. Res. 49(2), 157165.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MorrinM. and RatneshwarS. (2003). Does it make sense to use scents to enhance brand memory? J. Mark. Res. 401025.

  • MorrisJ. D. (1995). Observations: SAM: the self-assessment manikin: an efficient crosscultural measurement of emotional responseJ. Advert. Res. 356368.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MorrisJ. D. and BooneM. A. (1998). The effects of music on emotional response, brand attitude, and purchase intent in an emotional advertising conditionAdv. Consum. Res. 25518526.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MorrisonM.GanS.DubelaarC. and OppewalH. (2011). In-store music and aroma influences on shopper behavior and satisfactionJ. Bus. Res. 64558564.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NorthA. C.HargreavesD. J. and McKendrickJ. (1999). The influence on in-store music on wine selectionsJ. Appl. Psychol. 84271276.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NorthA. C. (2012). The effect of background music on the taste of wineBr. J. Psychol. 103293301.

  • PetruzzellisL.ChebatJ.-C. and PalumboA. (2014). “Hey dee-jay let’s play that song and keep me shopping all day long”: the effect of famous background music on consumer shopping behaviorJ. Mark. Dev. Compet. 83849.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Piqueras-FiszmanB. and SpenceC. (2015). Sensory expectations based on product-extrinsic food cues: an interdisciplinary review of the empirical evidence and theoretical accountsFood Qual. Prefer. 40165179.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • R Core Team (2013). R: a Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical ComputingVienna, Austria.

  • Reinoso-CarvalhoF.Van EeR.RychtarikovaM.TouhafiA.SteenhautK.PersooneD.SpenceC. and LemanM. (2015). Does music influence the multisensory tasting experience? J. Sens. Stud. 30404412.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RickardN. S. (2004). Intense emotional responses to music: a test of the physiological arousal hypothesisPsychol. Music 32371388.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SaymanS.HochS. J. and RajuJ. S. (2002). Positioning of store brandsMarket. Sci. 21378397.

  • SeoH. S. and HummelT. (2011). Auditory–olfactory integration: congruent or pleasant sounds amplify odor pleasantnessChem. Senses 36301309.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SieversB.LeeC.HaslettW. and WheatleyT. (2017). A multi-sensory code for arousal. https://psyarxiv.com/wucs4/download?format=pdf.

  • SimnerJ.CuskleyC. and KirbyS. (2010). What sound does that taste? Cross-modal mappings across gustation and auditionPerception 39(4), 553569.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SmallD. M. and PrescottJ. (2005). Odor/taste integration and the perception of flavorExp. Brain Res. 166345357.

  • SpeedL. J. and MajidA. (in press). Linguistic features of fragrances: the role of grammatical gender and gender associations. Atten. Percept. Psychophys. http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0003-4379-A.

  • SpenceC. (2011). Crossmodal correspondences: a tutorial reviewAtten. Percept. Psychophys. 73971995.

  • SpenceC. and PariseC. V. (2012). The cognitive neuroscience of crossmodal correspondencesi-Perception 3410412.

  • SpenceC. (2019). Multisensory experiential wine marketingFood Qual. Pref. 71106116.

  • SpenceC. and WangQ. J. (2015a). Wine and music (I): on the crossmodal matching of wine and musicFlavour 434. DOI:10.1186/s13411-015-0045-x.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SpenceC. and WangQ. J. (2015b). Wine and music (II): can you taste the music? Modulating the experience of wine through music and soundFlavour 433. DOI:10.1186/s13411-015-0043-z.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • StachJ. (2015). A conceptual framework for the assessment of brand congruent sensory modalitiesJ. Brand Manag. 22673694.

  • TreismanA. (1996). The binding problemCurr. Opin. Neurobiol. 6171178.

  • TreismanA. (1998). Feature binding, attention and object perceptionPhil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 35312951306.

  • VelascoC.BalboaD.Marmolejo-RamosF. and SpenceC. (2014). Crossmodal effect of music and odor pleasantness on olfactory quality perceptionFront. Psychol. 51352. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01352.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • VelascoC. and SpenceC. (2019). The multisensory analysis of product packaging framework, in: Multisensory PackagingC. Velasco and C. Spence (Eds), pp. 191223. Palgrave MacmillanCham, Switzerland.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • VossK. E.SpangenbergE. R. and GrohmannB. (2003). Measuring the hedonic and utilitarian dimensions of consumer attitudeJ. Market. Res. 40310320.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WangQ. and SpenceC. (2016). ‘Striking a sour note’: assessing the influence of consonant and dissonant music on taste perceptionMultisens. Res. 29195208.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WilliamsJ.StönnerC.WickerJ.KrauterN.DerstroffB.BourtsoukidisE.KlüpfelT. and KramerS. (2016). Cinema audiences reproducibly vary the chemical composition of air during films, by broadcasting scene specific emissions on breathSci. Rep. 625464. DOI:10.1038/srep25464.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WirtzJ.MattilaA. S. and TanR. L. P. (2007). The role of arousal congruency in influencing consumers’ satisfaction evaluations and in-store behaviorsInt. J. Serv. Ind. Manag. 18624.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • YeshurunY. and SobelN. (2010). An odor is not worth a thousand words: from multidimensional odors to unidimensional odor objectsAnnu. Rev. Psychol. 61219241.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • YoonK.BollsP. and LangA. (1998). The effects of arousal on liking and believability of commercialsJ. Mark. Commun. 4101114.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ZajoncR. B. (1968). Attitudinal effects of mere exposureJ. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 9127.

  • ZellnerD.GellerT.LyonsS.PyperA. and RiazK. (2017). Ethnic congruence of music and food affects food selection but not likingFood Qual. Pref. 56126129.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 274 274 27
Full Text Views 42 42 1
PDF Downloads 28 28 0