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Odor-Induced Taste Enhancement Is Specific to Naturally Occurring Temporal Order and the Respiration Phase

In: Multisensory Research
Authors:
Shogo Amano Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Noji-higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577, Japan

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Takuji Narumi Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8654, Japan

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Tatsu Kobayakawa Human Technology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8560, Japan

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Masayoshi Kobayashi Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-174 Edobashi, Tsu, Mie 514-8507, Japan

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Masahiko Tamura Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Noji-higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577, Japan

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Yuko Kusakabe Food Research Institute, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, 2-1-12 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642, Japan

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Yuji Wada Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Noji-higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577, Japan
Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8654, Japan
College of Gastronomy Management, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Noji-higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577, Japan

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https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4982-6562
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Abstract

Interaction between odor and taste information creates flavor perception. There are many possible determinants of the interaction between odor and taste, one of which may be the somatic sensations associated with breathing. We assumed that a smell stimulus accompanied by inhaling or exhaling enhances taste intensity if the order is congruent with natural drinking. To present an olfactory stimulus from the identical location during inhalation and exhalation, we blocked the gap between the tube presenting the olfactory stimulus and the nostril. Participants breathed and ingested the solution according to the instructions on the screen and evaluated the solution’s taste intensity. Vanilla odor enhanced the sweet taste in both retronasal and orthonasal conditions when the order of stimuli was congruent with natural drinking, but it did not do so in either condition when they were incongruent. The results suggest that breathing is a determinant of odor–taste interaction. The methods of presenting olfactory stimuli used in this study were compared and discussed in relation to those used in previous studies. Odor-induced taste enhancement depends on the time order of smell with breathing and taste congruency in natural drinking. Taste enhancement was induced by odor in both conditions by minimizing differences in odor presentation between them.

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