Diploscapter formicidae sp. n. (Rhabditida: Diploscapteridae), from the ant Prolasius advenus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in New Zealand

in Nematology
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?

Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.


Have Institutional Access?

Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?


Diploscapter formicidae sp. n. was collected from the ant Prolasius advenus and its nests in native beech forests of the South Island, New Zealand. This is a new host record for the nematode genus and the first report of an ant associate from the southern hemisphere. Diploscapter formicidae sp. n. appears to be native to New Zealand. No males were found from collections from 16 nests, in agreement with previously published data on the other members of this genus, suggesting that males are absent or very rare. The adult females have bilateral symmetry of the head, characteristic dorsal and ventral projections of the putative cheilostom with paired hook-like structures or hamuli, expansive membranous lateral lip flaps or laciniae, gymnostom and stegostom with parallel walls, a swollen procorpus, large terminal bulb with a strong valve, paired ovaries with medial vulva, and a short conoid tail with slender pointed or spicate tip. Scanning electron micrographs of the structure of the head confirmed that the lateral laciniae with finger-like tines or filopodia are moveable (alternately covering and exposing the mouth). These lateral lip flaps are located posterior to the stoma, but anterior to the pore-like amphidial openings. The anterior margin of the cheilostom possesses apomorphic lateral bell-shaped projections and the hamuli are broader and less pointed than other species that have been examined. Molecular phylogeny of near full-length small subunit, D2/D3 expansion segments of the large subunit rRNA gene and heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) gene showed that D. formicidae sp. n. is monophyletic with the Diploscapter species and isolates available in GenBank, but is on an independent trajectory supporting separate species status.

Diploscapter formicidae sp. n. (Rhabditida: Diploscapteridae), from the ant Prolasius advenus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in New Zealand

in Nematology



AbebeE.KaregarA.NabilH.De LeyP. (1998). A redescription and ultrastructural study of Diploscapter coronatus (Cobb, 1983) Cobb, 1913 from Ethiopia and Iran. Russian Journal of Nematology 617-22.

AbolafiaJ.Peña-SantiagoR. (2007). Nematodes of the order Rhabditida from Andalucia Oriental, Spain. The genera Protorhabditis (Osche, 1952) Dougherty, 1953 and Diploscapter Cobb, 1913, with description of P. spiculocrestata sp. n. and a species Protorhabditis key. Journal of Nematology 39263-274.

AndrássyI. (1983). A taxonomic review of the suborder Rhabditina (Nematoda: Secernentia). Paris, FranceORSTOM.

BongersT. (1988). De nematoden van Nederland. Utrecht, The NetherlandsStichting Uitgeverij Koninklijke Nederlandse Natuurhistorische Vereniging.

CampbellJ.F.GauglerR. (1993). Nictation behaviour and its ecological implications in the host search strategies of entomopathogenic nematodes (Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae). Behaviour 126155-169.

CartaL.SkantarA.ErbeE. (2006). Low temperature SEM and molecular phylogenetics of three Diploscapter populations. Journal of Nematology 3836.

CarterH.J. (1859). On Dracunculus and microscopic Filaridae in the island of Bombay. Annals & Magazine of Natural History 428-4498-116.

ChandlerA.C. (1938). Diploscapter coronatus as a facultative parasite of man, with a general review of vertebrate parasitism by rhabditoid worms. Parasitology 3044-55.

CobbN.A. (1893). Nematodes mostly Australian and Fijian. McLeay Memorial Volume. Sydney, NSW, AustraliaLinnaean Society of New South Wales252-308 + Figs 1-10.

CobbN.A. (1913). New nematode genera found inhabiting fresh water and non-brackish soils. Journal of Washington Academy of Sciences 3333-432.

DaviesK.Giblin-DavisR.M. (2004). The biology and associations of Fergusobia (Nematoda) from the Melaleuca leucadendra-complex in eastern Australia. Invertebrate Systematics 18291-319.

DonW. (2007). Ants of New Zealand. Dunedin, New ZealandOtago University Press.

GibbsD.S.AndersonG.L.BeuchatL.R.CartaL.K.WilliamsP.L. (2005). Potential role of Diploscapter sp. strain LKC25, a bacterivorous nematode from soil, as a vector of food-borne pathogenic bacteria to pre-harvest fruits and vegetables. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 712433-2437.

GrangierJ.LesterP.J. (2011). A novel interference behaviour: invasive wasps remove ants from resources and drop them from a height. Biology Letters 7664-667.

GreenO.R. (1990). Entomologist sets new record at Mt Smart, or Iridomyrmex humilis established in New Zealand. Weta 1314-16.

HerrmannM.KienleS.RochatJ.MayerW.E.SommerR.J. (2010). Haplotype diversity of the nematode Pristionchus pacificus on Réunion in the Indian Ocean suggests multiple independent invasions. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 100170-179.

HoltermanM.van der WurffA.van den ElsenS.van MegenH.BongersT.HolovachovO.BakkerJ.HelderJ. (2006). Phylum-wide analysis of SSU rDNA reveals deep phylogenetic relationships among nematodes and accelerated evolution toward crown clades. Molecular Biology and Evolution 131792-1800.

KannanS. (1960). Soil nematodes from Madras City. Journal of the Zoological Society of India 1240-50.

KiontkeK.BarriéreA.KolotuevI.PodbilewiczB.SommerR.FitchD.H.A.FelixM.-A. (2007). Trends, stasis, and drift in the evolution of nematode vulva development. Current Biology 171925-1937.

KiontkeK.FelixM.-A.AilionM.RockmanM.BraendleC.PénigaultJ.-B.FitchD.H.A. (2011). A phylogeny and molecular barcodes for Caenorhabditis, with numerous new species from rotting fruits. BMC Evolutionary Biology 11339-357.

KöhlerA. (2012). Nematodes in the heads of ants associated with sap flux and rotten wood. Nematology 14191-198.

KörnerH. (1954). Die nematodenfauna de vergehenden holzes und ihre beziehungen zu den insekten. Zoologische Jahrbücher (Systematik) 82245-353.

LarkinM.A.BlackshieldsG.BrownN.P.ChennaR.McGettiganP.A.McWilliamH.ValentinF.WallaceI.M.WilmA.LopezR. (2007). Clustal W and Clustal X version 2.0. Bioinformatics 232947-2948.

LemzinaL.V.GagarinV.G. (1994). New species of free-living nematodes from thermal water in Kyrghyzstan. Zoosystemica Rossica 319-21.

LoofP.A.A. (1964). Free-living and plant-parasitic nematodes from Venezuela. Nematologica 10201-300.

MarkinG.P.McCoyC.W. (1968). The occurrence of a nematode, Diploscapter lycostoma, in the pharyngeal glands of the Argentine ant, Iridomyrmex humilis. Annals of the American Entomological Society of America 61505-509.

MaupasE. (1900). Modes et formes de reproduction des nematodes. Archives de Zoologie Experimentale et Generale 3rd Series VIII463-624. [Cited in: Markin G.P. & McCoy C.W. (1968). The occurrence of a nematode Diploscapter lycostoma in the pharyngeal glands of the Argentine ant Iridomyrmex humilis. Annals of the American Entomological Society of America 61 505-509.]

MihelcicF. (1953). Nematodos de los suelos de humus. Contribucion al conocimiento de la microfauna de los suelos de humus. Anales de Edafologia y Fisiologia Vegetal 12879-905.

MorimotoN.KorenagaM.YagyuK.KageiN.FujiedaM.BainO.WakiguchiH.HashiguchiY.SugiuraT. (2006). Morphological observations and the effects of artificial digestive fluids on the survival of Diploscapter coronata from a Japanese patient. Journal of Helminthology 80341-348.

NunnG.B. (1992). Nematode molecular evolution. Ph.D. Thesis University of Nottingham UK.

PensoG. (1938). Su alcune Anguillulinae parassite degli ortaggi in Libia e sul modo di combatterle. Archivio Italianao di Scienze Mediche Colonali e di Parassitologia 19706-722.

PoinarG.O.Jr (1986). Rhabditis myriophila sp. n. (Rhabditidae: Rhabditida), associated with the millipede Oxidis gracilis (Polydesmida: Diplopoda). Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington 53232-236.

PoinarG.O.Jr (2003). Formicitylenchus oregonensis n. g., n. sp. (Allantonematidae: Nematoda), the first tylenchid parasite of ants, with a review of nematodes described from ants. Systematic Parasitology 5669-76.

PosadaD.CrandallK.A. (1998). MODELTEST: testing the model of DNA substitution. Bioinformatics 14817-818.

PowersT.O.NeherD.A.MullinP.EsquivelA.Giblin-DavisR.M.KanzakiN.StockS.P.MoraM.M.LorioL.U. (2009). Tropical nematode diversity: vertical stratification of nematode communities in a Costa Rican humid lowland rainforest. Molecular Ecology 18985-996.

RahmG. (1928). Sobre alguns nematodes parasitas e semi-parasitas das plantas culturaes do Brasil. Archivos do Instituto Biologico de Defesa Agricola e Animal 1239-252.

RahmG. (1929). Nematodes parasitas e semi-parasitas de diversas plantas culturaes do Brasil. Archivos do Instituto Biologico de Defesa Agricola e Animal 267-136.

RambautA.DrummondA.J. (2007). Tracer v 1.4 http://beast.bio.ed.ac.uk/Tracer.

RonquistF.HuelsenbeckJ.P. (2003). MR BAYES: Bayesian inference of phylogenetic trees. Bioinformatics 191572-1574.

SachsH.G. (1950). Die nematodenfauna der rinderexkrementa. Einökologish-systematische Studie. Zoologische Jahrbücher (Systematik) 79209-272.

ShattuckS.O. (1999). Australian ants: their biology and identification. Melbourne, AustraliaCSIRO.

ShokoohiE.AbolafiaJ. (2011). New data and SEM observations of six known species of the superfamily Rhabditoidea Orley, 1880 (Rhabditida) from Tehran province (Iran). Journal of Nematode Morphology and Systematics 1439-54.

SiddiqiM.R. (1998). Carinoscapter cornutus gen. n., sp. n., Diploscapter striatus sp. n. and D. angolaensis sp. n. (Rhabditids: Diplogasteridae). International Journal of Nematology 861-67.

SoutheyJ.F. (Ed.) (1986). Laboratory methods for work with plant and soil nematodes. Reference Book 402. London, UKMinistry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Her Majesty’s Stationery Office.

SteinerG. (1935). Opuscula miscellanea nematologica, II. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington 2104-110.

SteinerG. (1942). Opuscula miscellanea nematologica. IX. Hoya carnosa R., BR, the common wax plant as host of the root knot nematode and of a new rhabditid, Diploscapter pachys, n. sp. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington 932-38.

SudhausW. (2011). Phylogenetic systematisation and catalogue of paraphyletic “Rhabditidae” (Secernentea, Nematoda). Journal of Nematode Morphology and Systematics 14113-178.

SudhausW.FitchD. (2001). Comparative studies on the phylogeny and systematic of the Rhabditidae (Nematoda). Journal of Nematology 331-70.

SwoffordD.L. (1998). PAUP*. Phylogenetic analysis using parsimony (*and other methods) version 4. Sunderland, MA, USASinauer Associates.

TahseenQ.SiddiqiM.R.RoweJ. (2002). Study on species of Diploscapter Cobb (Nematoda: Rhabditida) from India including D. indicus sp. n. International Journal of Nematology 12183-188.

TruskovaG.M. (1971). [A new species of the genus Acrobeloides (Nematoda, Cephalobidae).] Zoologichesky Zhurnal 50434-436.

van MegenH.van den ElsenS.HoltermanM.KarssenG.MooymanP.BongersT.HolovachovO.BakkerJ.HelderJ. (2009). A phylogenetic tree of nematodes based on about 1200 full-length small subunit ribosomal DNA sequences. Nematology 11927-950.

VölkJ. (1950). Die Nematoden der Regenwürmer und aasbesuchenden Käfer. Zoologische Jahrbücher (Systematik) 791-70. [Cited in: Tahseen Q. Siddiqi M.R. & Rowe J. (2002). Study on species of Diploscapter Cobb (Nematoda: Rhabditida) from India including D. indicus sp. n. International Journal of Nematology 12 183-188.]

VovlasN.TroccoliA.Palomares-RiusJ.E.De LucaF.LiébanasG.LandaB.B.SubbotinS.A.CastilloP. (2011). Ditylenchus gigas n. sp. parasitizing broad bean: a new stem nematode singled out from the Ditylenchus dipsaci species complex using a polyphasic approach with molecular phylogeny. Plant Pathology 60762-775.

WahabA. (1962). Untersuchungen über Nematoden in den Drüsen des Kopfes der Ameisen (Formicidae). Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Ökologie der Tiere 5233-92.

WilliamsB.D.SchrankB.HuynhC.ShownkeenR.WaterstonR.H. (1992). A genetic mapping system in Caenorhabditis elegans based on polymorphic sequence-tagged sites. Genetics 131609-624.

ZhengJ.W.SubbotinS.A.HeS.S.GuJ.F.MoensM. (2002). Molecular characterisation of some Asian isolates of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and B. mucronatus using PCR-RFLPs and sequences of ribosomal DNA. Russian Journal of Nematology 1117-22.


  • View in gallery

    Diploscapter formicidae sp. n. All in lateral view. A: Habitus of adult female; B: Anterior of female; C: Vulva and posterior ovary showing spermatheca containing sperm; D: Tail showing characteristic stepped shape of rectum. (Scale bars: A = 100 μm; B-D = 50 μm.)

  • View in gallery

    Diploscapter formicidae sp. n. All of living adult female. In lateral view, except for ventral views of head and vulva. A-D: Ventral views of head at different focal depths; E, F: Lateral views of head at different focal depths, lateral labial sensillum arrowed; G: Stoma, amphid opening arrowed; H: Vulva in ventral view; I: Lateral field.

  • View in gallery

    Diploscapter formicidae sp. n. Scanning electron micrographs. A: En face view of head showing hamuli and laciniae with filopod-like tines; B: Head and stoma; C: Vulva; D: Tail region showing lateral lines and anus.

  • View in gallery

    Bayesian phylogenetic tree inferred from SSU gene DNA sequences. Posterior probabilities greater than 50% are given on appropriate clades. Nematode species, GenBank accession numbers and locations are listed for each taxon, if known.

  • View in gallery

    Bayesian phylogenetic tree inferred from Hsp90 gene DNA sequences. Posterior probabilities greater than 50% are given on appropriate clades. Nematode species, GenBank accession numbers and locations are listed for each taxon, if known.


Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 12 12 8
Full Text Views 32 32 20
PDF Downloads 3 3 1
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0