Diploscapter formicidae sp. n. was collected from the ant Prolasius advenus and its nests in native beech forests of the South Island, New Zealand. This is a new host record for the nematode genus and the first report of an ant associate from the southern hemisphere. Diploscapter formicidae sp. n. appears to be native to New Zealand. No males were found from collections from 16 nests, in agreement with previously published data on the other members of this genus, suggesting that males are absent or very rare. The adult females have bilateral symmetry of the head, characteristic dorsal and ventral projections of the putative cheilostom with paired hook-like structures or hamuli, expansive membranous lateral lip flaps or laciniae, gymnostom and stegostom with parallel walls, a swollen procorpus, large terminal bulb with a strong valve, paired ovaries with medial vulva, and a short conoid tail with slender pointed or spicate tip. Scanning electron micrographs of the structure of the head confirmed that the lateral laciniae with finger-like tines or filopodia are moveable (alternately covering and exposing the mouth). These lateral lip flaps are located posterior to the stoma, but anterior to the pore-like amphidial openings. The anterior margin of the cheilostom possesses apomorphic lateral bell-shaped projections and the hamuli are broader and less pointed than other species that have been examined. Molecular phylogeny of near full-length small subunit, D2/D3 expansion segments of the large subunit rRNA gene and heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) gene showed that D. formicidae sp. n. is monophyletic with the Diploscapter species and isolates available in GenBank, but is on an independent trajectory supporting separate species status.
Nematodes of the order Rhabditida from Andalucia Oriental, Spain. The genera Protorhabditis (Osche, 1952) Dougherty, 1953 and Diploscapter Cobb, 1913, with description of P. spiculocrestata sp. n. and a species Protorhabditis key.
Journal of Nematology39263-274.
Nictation behaviour and its ecological implications in the host search strategies of entomopathogenic nematodes (Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae).
Potential role of Diploscapter sp. strain LKC25, a bacterivorous nematode from soil, as a vector of food-borne pathogenic bacteria to pre-harvest fruits and vegetables.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology712433-2437.
Haplotype diversity of the nematode Pristionchus pacificus on Réunion in the Indian Ocean suggests multiple independent invasions.
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society100170-179.
HoltermanM.van der WurffA.van den ElsenS.van MegenH.BongersT.HolovachovO.BakkerJ.HelderJ. (2006).
Phylum-wide analysis of SSU rDNA reveals deep phylogenetic relationships among nematodes and accelerated evolution toward crown clades.
Molecular Biology and Evolution131792-1800.
A phylogeny and molecular barcodes for Caenorhabditis, with numerous new species from rotting fruits.
BMC Evolutionary Biology11339-357.
The occurrence of a nematode, Diploscapter lycostoma, in the pharyngeal glands of the Argentine ant, Iridomyrmex humilis.
Annals of the American Entomological Society of America61505-509.
Modes et formes de reproduction des nematodes.
Archives de Zoologie Experimentale et Generale 3rd SeriesVIII463-624. [Cited in: Markin G.P. & McCoy C.W. (1968). The occurrence of a nematode Diploscapter lycostoma in the pharyngeal glands of the Argentine ant Iridomyrmex humilis. Annals of the American Entomological Society of America 61 505-509.]
Morphological observations and the effects of artificial digestive fluids on the survival of Diploscapter coronata from a Japanese patient.
Journal of Helminthology80341-348.
Rhabditis myriophila sp. n. (Rhabditidae: Rhabditida), associated with the millipede Oxidis gracilis (Polydesmida: Diplopoda).
Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington53232-236.
Formicitylenchus oregonensis n. g., n. sp. (Allantonematidae: Nematoda), the first tylenchid parasite of ants, with a review of nematodes described from ants.
Tropical nematode diversity: vertical stratification of nematode communities in a Costa Rican humid lowland rainforest.
New data and SEM observations of six known species of the superfamily Rhabditoidea Orley, 1880 (Rhabditida) from Tehran province (Iran).
Journal of Nematode Morphology and Systematics1439-54.
Opuscula miscellanea nematologica. IX. Hoya carnosa R., BR, the common wax plant as host of the root knot nematode and of a new rhabditid, Diploscapter pachys, n. sp.Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington932-38.
van MegenH.van den ElsenS.HoltermanM.KarssenG.MooymanP.BongersT.HolovachovO.BakkerJ.HelderJ. (2009).
A phylogenetic tree of nematodes based on about 1200 full-length small subunit ribosomal DNA sequences.
Die Nematoden der Regenwürmer und aasbesuchenden Käfer.
Zoologische Jahrbücher (Systematik)791-70. [Cited in: Tahseen Q. Siddiqi M.R. & Rowe J. (2002). Study on species of Diploscapter Cobb (Nematoda: Rhabditida) from India including D. indicus sp. n. International Journal of Nematology 12 183-188.]
VovlasN.TroccoliA.Palomares-RiusJ.E.De LucaF.LiébanasG.LandaB.B.SubbotinS.A.CastilloP. (2011).
Ditylenchus gigas n. sp. parasitizing broad bean: a new stem nematode singled out from the Ditylenchus dipsaci species complex using a polyphasic approach with molecular phylogeny.
Molecular characterisation of some Asian isolates of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and B. mucronatus using PCR-RFLPs and sequences of ribosomal DNA.
Russian Journal of Nematology1117-22.