The entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN), together with their symbiotic bacteria, are obligate and lethal parasites of insects and are applied as biological approaches to pest management. In this paper, we isolated 122 strains of symbiotic bacteria from 23 EPN isolates that were gathered in various soils containing different vegetations from different regions of China. All these isolated bacterial strains showed oral insecticidal activity and/or growth inhibition to the larvae of Ostrinia furnacalis. Among these strains, Xenorhabdus sp. SY5 exhibited high insecticidal activity to O. furnacalis, Plutella xylostella, Mythimna separata, Laphygma exigua and Tenebrio molitor, all of which are important agricultural pests. Xenorhabdus sp. SY5 was isolated from EPN Steinernema sp. SY5. Through DEAE-52 column chromatography, seven toxins were purified from X. sp. SY5. Bioassay results showed that all seven toxins had, to a certain extent, insecticidal activity and/or growth inhibition to O. furnacalis, T. molitor, P. xylostella, M. separata and L. exigua. Our data also showed that each of these toxins had different insecticidal activity and/or growth inhibition against different insect species. The partial toxin gene sequence of X. sp. SY5 was determined, and its deduced amino acid sequence only showed 75, 66 and 65% identities to homologues of EPN symbiotic bacteria Photorhabdus luminescens, Xenorhabdus nematophila and Yersinia mollaretii, respectively. These results suggested that strain SY5 is a highly virulent EPN symbiotic bacterial strain that has a potential value for biological pest control.
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Isolation and characterization of intracellular protein inclusions produced by the entomopathogenic bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens.
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Microbial control of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) using bacteria (Xenorhabdus nematophila) and its metabolites from the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae.
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Pathogenicity of bacterium, Xenorhabdus nematophila isolated from entomopathogenic nematode (Steinernema carpocapsae) and its secretion against Galleria mellonella larvae.
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Identification and characterization of a novel gene involved in the trans-Specific nematicidal activity of Photorhabdus luminescens LN2.
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Identification, typing, and insecticidal activity of Xenorhabdus isolates from entomopathogenic nematodes in United Kingdom soil and characterization of the xpt toxin Loci.
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Effects of host nutrition on virulence and fitness of entomopathogenic nematodes: lipid- and protein-based supplements in Tenebrio molitor diets.
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Inactivation of a novel gene produces a phenotypic variant cell and affects the symbiotic behavior of Xenorhabdus nematophilus.
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