Nematicidal activity of gallic acid purified from Terminalia nigrovenulosa bark against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita

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The nematicidal activity of Terminalia nigrovenulosa bark (TNB) and its purified compound were assayed against Meloidogyne incognita in vitro. The nematicidal compound was isolated from TNB using silica gel column and Sephadex LH-20 chromatography combined with thin-layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. Structural identification of the nematicidal compound was conducted using 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 13C-NMR and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We found that the nematicidal compound purified from TNB was gallic acid (GA) or 3,4,5-trihydroxy benzoic acid. Nematicidal activity bioassays revealed that GA treatment resulted in 20.3, 37.5, 73.3, 88.3 and 95.8% hatch inhibition at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg ml−1 after 3 days, respectively, of incubation. Eggshells appeared to be deformed and destroyed at 2 and 3 days after incubation with a GA concentration of 1.0 mg ml−1, respectively. Additionally, after treatment with a GA concentration of 1.0 mg ml−1, mortality of second-stage juveniles of M. incognita was 65.0, 75.0, 96.7 and 100% at 3, 6, 9 and 12 h incubation, respectively.

Nematicidal activity of gallic acid purified from Terminalia nigrovenulosa bark against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita

in Nematology

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Figures

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    Schematic representation of the extraction and isolation of gallic acid from Terminalia nigrovenulosa bark.

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    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of gallic acid purified from Terminalia nigrovenulosa bark. Retention time was 14.6 min.

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    A: 1H-NMR; B: 13C-NMR spectra of gallic acid purified from Terminalia nigrovenulosa bark. 1H- and 13C-spectra were measured in CD3OD at 500 and 125 MHz, respectively.

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    Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS) spectrum of gallic acid (GA) purified from Terminalia nigrovenulosa bark.

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    Juvenile mortality after treatment with A: the crude extract; B: ethyl acetate fraction; or C: gallic acid purified from Terminalia nigrovenulosa bark at various concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg ml−1) after 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 h incubations. Values are mean ± standard deviation.

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    Effect of purified gallic acid (GA) (1.0 mg ml−1) on the morphology of Meloidogyne incognita eggs. Meloidogyne incognita egg shapes in the water control under light microscopy (A0, 1, 2, 3) and fluorescence microscopy (B0, 1, 2, 3) at days 0, 1, 2 and 3. On the second day in the water control, M. incognita egg developed to the first-stage juvenile (A2). On day 3 in the water control, the second-stage juvenile appeared (A3). M. incognita egg shapes in the GA incubation under light microscopy (C0, 1, 2, 3) and fluorescence microscopy (D0, 1, 2, 3) at days 0, 1, 2 and 3. On day 1 after GA incubation, development ceased soon after deposition of GA (C1). On day 2 after GA incubation, a deformed eggshell was observed (arrow) (C2) and on day 3 after GA incubation, some eggshells were totally destroyed (circle) (C3) under light microscopy. The GA-treated egg at days 0, 1, 2 and 3 (D0, 1, 2, 3) under fluorescence microscopy after staining with 0.01% Fluorescence Brightener 28. This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/15685411.

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    Light microscopy images of second-stage Meloidogyne incognita juveniles after treatment with gallic acid purified from Terminalia nigrovenulosa bark. A: Untreated; B-D: Treated with 1 mg ml−1 gallic acid for 12 h. Characteristic shapes of dead nematodes: straight (I-shape) (B); bent (banana-shape) (C); sigmoid (Σ-shape) (D). Scale bar is 50 μm. This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/15685411.

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