Sudhausia aristotokia n. gen., n. sp. and S. crassa n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Diplogastridae): viviparous new species with precocious gonad development

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Two new species of diplogastrid nematodes, Sudhausia aristotokia n. gen., n. sp. and S. crassa n. gen., n. sp., were isolated from dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Ghana and South Africa, respectively. Sudhausia n. gen. is circumscribed by stomatal morphology, namely the presence of a tube-shaped gymnostom, a pair of conical subventral denticles in the metastegostom, and a disk-like telostegostom bearing minute conical denticles. Other characters distinguishing the new genus are the presence of a bursa in the male and a vulva lined anteriorly and posteriorly by columns of sac-like cells. The two new species, both of which are hermaphroditic, are distinguished from each other by spicule and gubernaculum morphology, male papillae arrangement, bursal shape, vaginal morphology, and phasmid position. A suite of unusual developmental traits that distinguishes Sudhausia n. spp. includes maturation of the gonad and development of juvenile progeny before moulting to adulthood, a two-fold increase in embryo size during development, and constitutive vivipary. A phylogeny inferred from 11 ribosomal protein-coding genes and a fragment of the small subunit rRNA gene show Sudhausia n. gen. to be divergent from other sequenced diplogastrid taxa, including those characterised by a tube-like stoma. The two new species represent useful new reference points for the study of feeding-structure evolution in Diplogastridae.

Nematology

International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Nematological Research

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Figures

  • Phylogenetic relationships of Diplogastridae, including Sudhausia aristotokia n. gen., n. sp. and S. crassa n. gen., n. sp., inferred by maximum likelihood (ML) from an approximately 450 bp fragment of the SSU rRNA gene and 11 ribosomal protein-coding genes. The tree with the highest log-likelihood (−55811.647527) is shown. The percentage of trees in which the associated taxa clustered together in 1000 bootstrap pseudoreplicates is shown next to the nodes (left value). Bootstrap support values above 50% are shown. The tree is drawn to scale, with branch lengths measured in the number of substitutions per site.

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  • Phylogenetic relationships of Diplogastridae, including Sudhausia aristotokia n. gen., n. sp. and S. crassa n. gen., n. sp., inferred by Bayesian analysis from an approximately 450 bp fragment of the SSU rRNA gene and 11 ribosomal protein-coding genes. The tree is a 50% majority-rule consensus tree with clade credibility values given as posterior probabilities. Posterior probabilities above 50% are shown. The tree is drawn to scale, with branch lengths measured in the number of substitutions per site.

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  • Mature adults of Sudhausia aristotokia n. gen., n. sp. Left, hermaphrodite, right lateral view. Right, male, left lateral view.

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  • Sudhausia aristotokia n. gen., n. sp. A: Neck region of hermaphrodite, right lateral view; B: Lip region of male, left lateral view; C: Stomatal region of hermaphrodite, right lateral view; D: Stomatal region of hermaphrodite, ventral view; E: Spicule and gubernaculum, left lateral view; F: Male tail, left lateral view; G: Male tail, ventral view. Abbreviations: R1-R7 = bursal ray papillae; d = dorsal; v = ventral.

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  • Schematic representation of the stoma of Sudhausia aristotokia n. gen., n. sp. Abbreviations: cheilo = cheilostom; gymno = gymnostom; pro/meso stego = pro-/mesostegostom; meta stego = metastegostom; telostego = telostegostom.

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  • Young hermaphrodites of Sudhausia aristotokia n. gen., n. sp. A-C: Variation in reproductive tract among individuals. A: Left lateral view; B: Right lateral view; C: Right lateral view; D: Anus, ventral view; E: Tail region, right lateral view; F: Vulva, ventral view.

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  • Scanning electron micrographs of Sudhausia aristotokia n. gen., n. sp. and S. crassa n. gen., n. sp. A-C: S. aristotokia n. gen., n. sp. A: Entire body of mature hermaphrodite; B: Male tail, right subventral view. Nomenclature of genital papillae follows text. Asterisk indicates phasmid; C: Gubernaculum and thin tips of spicules extruded from cloacal opening, right subventral view. D-H: S. crassa n. gen., n. sp. D: Lip region of hermaphrodite, oblique en face and left subdorsal lateral view. Plugged amphid (am) is also apparent; E: Neck region of hermaphrodite, including excretory pore, ventral view; F: Vulva, ventral view; G: Male tail, left ventral view. Extruded, robust spicule tips also apparent; H: Anus, oblique left subventral view. Left phasmid is also apparent. Abbreviations: R1-R7 = bursal ray papillae; d = dorsal, v = ventral, V1, V2 = ventral papillae.

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  • Nomarski micrographs of Sudhausia aristotokia n. gen., n. sp. and S. crassa n. gen., n. sp. A: Stomatal region of hermaphrodite of S. aristotokia n. gen., n. sp., sagittal plane, left ventral view. Short arrow indicates offset anterior part of gymnostom; asterisk indicates dorsal tooth; long arrows indicate pair of telostegostomatal denticles; B: Same individual shown in (A), plane left of sagittal, left lateral view. Arrow indicates one of the pair of left subventral metastegostomatal denticles (both are shown); C: Vagina of S. aristotokia n. gen., n. sp., sagittal plane, right lateral view. Vagina is lined anteriorly and posteriorly by series of sac-like cells with a thin cytoplasm and membranous appearance; D: Vagina of S. crassa n. gen., n. sp., showing vaginal sac-like cells with a refractive cytoplasm and thickened appearance; E: Mature hermaphrodite of S. aristotokia n. gen., n. sp., with a series of developing embryos and juveniles in oviduct; F: Oviduct of hermaphrodite of S. crassa n. gen., n. sp. with growing embryos; G: Dauer (D) and directly developing J3 (J3) juveniles within the oviduct of S. crassa n. gen., n. sp.; H: J4 of S. crassa n. gen., n. sp., gravid with developing embryos, located near developing vulva. (Scale bars = 10 μm unless otherwise indicated.)

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  • Mature adults of Sudhausia crassa n. gen., n. sp. A: Hermaphrodite, right lateral view; B: Male, left lateral view; C: Neck region of hermaphrodite, left lateral view; D: Lip region of male, left subdorsal view; E: Stomatal region of hermaphrodite, left lateral view; F: Stomatal region of hermaphrodite, ventral view.

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  • Adults of Sudhausia crassa n. gen., n. sp. A: Reproductive tract of young hermaphrodite, right lateral view; B: Vulva, ventral view; C: Tail region of hermaphrodite, left lateral view; D: Anus, ventral view; E: Male tail, ventral view; F: Spicule and gubernaculum, left lateral view; G: Male tail, left lateral view. Abbreviations: R1-R6 = bursal ray papillae; d = dorsal; v = ventral.

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