Description of Ruehmaphelenchus formosanus n. sp. (Tylenchina: Aphelenchoididae) isolated from Euwallacea fornicates from Taiwan

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A Ruehmaphelenchus species was isolated from an ambrosia beetle, Euwallacea fornicates, during a biodiversity survey of entomophilic nematodes in Taichung, Taiwan. The new species is characterised by a unique tail morphology in both males and females, and a unique spicule morphology in males. The male spicule has clear dorsal and ventral limbs (connected by a blade-like cuticle), a triangular membrane-like structure on its sides, and short, conspicuous, laterally oriented, projections at the distal end. In a molecular phylogenetic tree, inferred from near-full-length small subunit (SSU: 18S) and D2/D3 expansion segments of the large subunit (LSU: 28S) of ribosomal RNA, the new species and other nominal and undescribed Ruehmaphelenchus species formed a well supported clade within Bursaphelenchus. Although this result supports a previous study that suggested that Ruehmaphelenchus is a junior synonym of Bursaphelenchus, the generic relationship between Ruehmaphelenchus and Bursaphelenchus remains somewhat uncertain. Therefore, R. formosanus n. sp. is described as a member of Ruehmaphelenchus, although this should be regarded as a tentative placement.

Description of Ruehmaphelenchus formosanus n. sp. (Tylenchina: Aphelenchoididae) isolated from Euwallacea fornicates from Taiwan

in Nematology

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References

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Figures

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    Ruehmaphelenchus formosanus n. sp. A: Female; B: Male; C: Anterior region; D: Stylet; E; Ventral view of male tail; F: Left lateral view of male tail; G: Ventral view of spicule; H: Left lateral view of spicule: I: Female gonad; J: Right lateral view of female tail; K-N: Variation in female tail.

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    Ruehmaphelenchus formosanus n. sp. A-E: Left lateral view of male tail in different focal planes; F-I: Ventral view of male tail in different focal planes; J: Left lateral view of female tail. Genital papillae are labelled P1, P2, P3 and P4, and the triangular structure and spike-like projection on the male spicule are labelled T and S, respectively. (Scale bar = 10 μm.)

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    Molecular phylogenetic relationships among Ruehmaphelenchus and Bursaphelenchus species. The 10001st Bayesian tree inferred from the near-full-length small subunit of the ribosomal RNA gene under the GTR + I + G model (lnL = 9877.0859; freqA = 0.2649; freqC = 0.1729; freqG = 0.2565; freqT = 0.3057; R(a) = 1.4899; R(b) = 2.6843; R(c) = 1.2224; R(d) = 0.6268; R(e) = 5.0152; R(f) = 1; Pinva = 0.4242; Shape = 0.5035). Posterior probability values exceeding 50% are given on appropriate clades.

  • View in gallery

    Molecular phylogenetic relationships among Ruehmaphelenchus and Bursaphelenchus species. The 10001st Bayesian tree inferred from D2/D3 expansion segments of the large subunit ribosomal RNA gene (D2/D3 LSU) under the GTR + I + G model (lnL = 11962.9463; freqA = 0.1964; freqC = 0.1627; freqG = 0.308; freqT = 0.333; R(a) = 0.5869; R(b) = 2.3163; R(c) = 0.8489; R(d) = 0.6972; R(e) = 4.5465; R(f) = 1; Pinva = 0.2419; Shape = 0.6928). Posterior probability values that exceeded 50% are given on the appropriate clades.

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    Comparison of spicule morphology between the Bursaphelenchus fungivorus group and Ruehmaphelenchus formosanus n. sp. A: B. tadamiensis; B: R. formosanus n. sp. Homologous parts are indicated by asterisks; parts that are assumed to be homologous are indicated by ‘?’; the origin of the spike-like projection in R. formosanus n. sp. (arrow) is unknown.

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    Molecular phylogenetic relationships among Ruehmaphelenchus and Bursaphelenchus species inferred from near-full-length small subunit of the ribosomal RNA gene. The phylogenetic tree was constructed using the Maximum Likelihood algorithm with 1000 bootstrap pseudoreplications. The bootstrap values higher than 50% are shown on corresponding nodes.

  • View in gallery

    Molecular phylogenetic relationships among Ruehmaphelenchus and Bursaphelenchus species inferred from D2/D3 expansion segments of large subunit of the ribosomal RNA gene. The phylogenetic tree was constructed using the Maximum Likelihood algorithm with 1000 bootstrap pseudoreplications. The bootstrap values higher than 50% are shown on corresponding nodes.

  • View in gallery

    Molecular phylogenetic relationships among Ruehmaphelenchus and Bursaphelenchus species inferred from near-full-length small subunit of the ribosomal RNA gene. The phylogenetic tree was constructed using the Maximum Parsimony algorithm with 1000 bootstrap pseudoreplications. The bootstrap values higher than 50% are shown on corresponding nodes.

  • View in gallery

    Molecular phylogenetic relationships among Ruehmaphelenchus and Bursaphelenchus species inferred from D2/D3 expansion segments of large subunit of the ribosomal RNA gene. The phylogenetic tree was constructed using the Maximum Parsimony algorithm with 1000 bootstrap pseudoreplications. The bootstrap values higher than 50% are shown on corresponding nodes.

  • View in gallery

    Molecular phylogenetic relationships among Ruehmaphelenchus and Bursaphelenchus species inferred from near-full-length small subunit of the ribosomal RNA gene. The phylogenetic tree was constructed using the Neighbour-Joining algorithm with 1000 bootstrap pseudoreplications. The bootstrap values higher than 50% are shown on corresponding nodes.

  • View in gallery

    Molecular phylogenetic relationships among Ruehmaphelenchus and Bursaphelenchus species inferred from D2/D3 expansion segments of large subunit of the ribosomal RNA gene. The phylogenetic tree was constructed using the Neighbour-Joining algorithm with 1000 bootstrap pseudoreplications. The bootstrap values higher than 50% are shown on corresponding nodes.

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