Integrated management of root-knot nematodes on tomato in glasshouse production using nematicides and a biocontrol agent, and their effect on soil microbial communities

in Nematology
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Nematicides are the main method for managing root-knot nematodes but they are not environmentally benign. Biological control is one alternative that has a lower or no environmental impact. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of two nematicides (Fosthiazate and Dazomet), a biocontrol agent (Purpureocillium lilacinum (= Paecilomyces lilacinus) YES-2), their combination on controlling root-knot nematodes on tomato plants and their effects on the rhizosphere microbial community in long-term glasshouse experiments. The gall index and numbers of second-stage juveniles (J2) were significantly reduced by the individual treatments of Fosthiazate, Dazomet or P. lilacinum YES-2. Purpureocillium lilacinum YES-2 combined with a half dose of Fosthiazate showed the most efficient control as indicated by gall index and number of J2 compared with the control treatment in glasshouse experiments conducted over a 5-year period (2007-2011). The bacterial and fungal biodiversity in soil measured using Biolog ECO MicroPlates and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprint was higher in the treatments of P. lilacinum YES-2 alone or its combination with chemicals than in the treatments of Dazomet or Fosthiazate (in 2011 only). This study suggested a synergistic effect on the control of root-knot nematode by P. lilacinum YES-2 combined with Fosthiazate, and the contribution of these two treatments to the microbial communities in the soil.

Integrated management of root-knot nematodes on tomato in glasshouse production using nematicides and a biocontrol agent, and their effect on soil microbial communities

in Nematology

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Figures

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    Average well colour development (AWCD) of the Biolog ECO plates. NS: No significant difference; P. lilacinum = Purpureocillium lilacinum. Means with the same letter are not significantly different.

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    Principal component analysis (PCA) of soil samples based on carbon utilisation profiles of microbial communities: P. lilacinum = Purpureocillium lilacinum.

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    A: DGGE profiles of amplified 16S rDNA fragments from the samples; B: UPGMA tree based on the DGGE results. PL: Purpureocillium lilacinum YES-2.

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    A: DGGE profiles of amplified 18S rDNA fragments from the samples; B: UPGMA tree based on the DGGE results. PL: Purpureocillium lilacinum YES-2.

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    Principal component analysis of soil microbial community variability (bacteria plus fungi) in different treatment based on the DGGE results.

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