Steinernema sacchari n. sp. (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), a new entomopathogenic nematode from South Africa

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A new species of entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema sacchari n. sp., was isolated by trapping with the sugar cane borer, Eldana saccharina, from soil of a sugar cane field in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. The new species is morphologically characterised by the length of the infective juvenile (IJ) of 680 (630-722) μm, tail length of 64 (51-74) μm, ratio a = 19 (14-23), H% = 49 (43-57) and E% = 82 (70-109). The pattern of the lateral field of the IJ of the new species is 2, 5, 2 ridges (3, 6, 3 lines or incisures). The male of the first generation can be recognised by the long spicule of 83 (73-89) μm, gubernaculum of 61 (50-68) μm, D% = 67 (54-88) and GS% = 73 (66-81). The first generation male lacks a mucron, while the second generation male always has one. The first generation female can be recognised by the vulval lips not being raised, the possession of long double-flapped epiptygmata and the lack of a postanal swelling. Analysis of the ITS and D2D3 regions showed S. sacchari n. sp. to differ from all other Steinernema species and to belong to a new monophyletic group, the ‘Cameroonian’ clade, consisting of S. cameroonense, S. nyetense and S. sacchari n. sp. This group is closely related to the feltiae-kraussei-oregonense Clade III.

Steinernema sacchari n. sp. (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), a new entomopathogenic nematode from South Africa

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References

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Figures

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    Steinernema sacchari n. sp. First generation male. A: Anterior region; E: Lateral view of tail region; I: Ventral view of tail; J: Gubernaculum. First generation female. B: Anterior region; F: Vulva with double-flapped epiptygmata; H: Tail region. Infective juvenile. C: Anterior region; D: Tail region. G: Tail of second generation female. (Scale bars: A = 50 μm; B-H, J = 20 μm; I = 25 μm.)

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    Male of Steinernema sacchari n. sp. A-C, first generation. A: Pharyngeal region showing excretory pore (EP); B: En face view; C: Tail region, showing 12 pairs of papillae and one midventral papilla (s); D: Lateral view of tail of second generation; E: Spicula and gubernaculum of tail of first generation; F. Spicule shape. (Scale bars: A, E, F = 20 μm; B = 10 μm; C = 50 μm; D = 40 μm.)

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    Female Steinernema sacchari n. sp. A-C and E-H, first generation. A: Anterior region showing pharynx; B: Excretory pore position and stoma; C: En face view. D: Second generation tail; E: Double-flapped epiptygmata; F: First generation tail; G: Vulva with epiptygmata; H: Tail of first generation. (Scale bars: A, B, G, H = 20 μm; C, D = 10 μm; E = 30 μm; F = 40 μm.)

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    Infective juvenile of Steinernema sacchari n. sp. A: Tail region showing shape of tail and anus (a); B: Anterior end showing excretory pore (EP); C: Pharynx showing start of two lateral ridges; D: Tail with anus (a) and phasmid (p); E: Splitting of ridges in lateral field from two to five (from anterior); F: Five ridges in lateral field in mid-body. (Scale bars: A, B = 20 μm; C, F = 5 μm; D = 10 μm; E = 2 μm.)

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    Phylogenetic relationships of Steinernema sacchari n. sp. Fifty three species of Steinernema based on the ITS-rDNA sequences from GenBank. Caenorhabditis elegans (EU131007) was used as outgroup. Numbers at the nodes represent bootstrap proportion for Maximum Parsimony of 50% or more.

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    Phylogenetic relationships of Steinernema sacchari n. sp. with 19 species of Steinernema based on the D2D3-rDNA sequences from GenBank. Cervidellus alurus (AF331911) was used as outgroup. Numbers at the nodes represent bootstrap proportion for Maximum Parsimony of 50% or more.

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