Morphological and molecular characterisation of Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus (Steiner, 1914) Golden, 1956 and related species (Tylenchida: Hoplolaimidae) with a phylogeny of the genus

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Morphological identification of spiral nematodes of the genus Helicotylenchus is a difficult task because most characters used for their diagnosis vary within species. In this paper we provide morphological and molecular characterisations of several spiral nematodes, H. broadbalkiensis, H. digonicus, H. dihystera, H. microlobus, H. paxilli and H. pseudorobustus, collected in different geographical areas of USA, Switzerland, Italy, New Zealand, Spain, UK, South Korea and Russia. We suggest that H. microlobus and H. pseudorobustus are valid species separated from each other morphologically and molecularly. Seven species with distinct molecular characteristics are also distinguished, but are not ascribed morphologically to any specific taxon because of the low number of specimens available. Phylogenetic relationships of H. pseudorobustus with other Helicotylenchus species are given as inferred from the analyses of 154 sequences of the D2-D3 of 28S rRNA gene and 37 sequences of ITS rRNA gene.

Morphological and molecular characterisation of Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus (Steiner, 1914) Golden, 1956 and related species (Tylenchida: Hoplolaimidae) with a phylogeny of the genus

in Nematology

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References

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Figures

  • View in gallery

    Entire view of Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus (CD1250, CA, USA). (Scale bar = 20 μm.)

  • View in gallery

    Anterior region of Helicotylenchus spp. A-E: H. pseudorobustus (CD1250, California, USA); F-J: H. microlobus (F: CD599, California, USA; G-J: CD989, Iowa, USA); K, L: H. broadbalkiensis (CD363, California, USA); M-O: H. digonicus (Kansas, USA). (Scale bar = 10 μm.)

  • View in gallery

    Anterior region of Helicotylenchus spp. A: H. pseudorobustus (CD795, New Zealand); B: H. pseudorobustus (CD1276, California, USA); C: H. paxilli (CD694, Florida, USA); D: H. broadbalkiensis (J94round, Spain); E: Helicotylenchus spX-1 (CD1051, California, USA); F-H: Helicotylenchus spVII-2 (CD567, California, USA); I: H. dihystera (CD359, Florida, USA); J: H. dihystera (CD1067, Texas, USA); K-O: H. dihystera (CD617, Hawaii, USA). (Scale bar = 10 μm.)

  • View in gallery

    Posterior region of Helicotylenchus spp. A, B: H. pseudorobustus (CD795, Switzerland); C, D: H. pseudorobustus (CD704, New Zealand); E: H. pseudorobustus (CD1276, California, USA); F-J: H. pseudorobustus (CD1250, CA, USA); K: H. microlobus (CD599, California, USA); L-O: H. microlobus (CD989, Iowa, USA); P, Q: H. microlobus (Locubin, Spain); R: H. microlobus (718, China); S, T: H. microlobus (CD740, California, USA). (Scale bar = 10 μm.)

  • View in gallery

    Posterior region of Helicotylenchus spp. A, B: H. broadbalkiensis (CD363, California, USA), C-E: H. broadbalkiensis (J94round, Spain); F-J: H. digonicus (CD864, Kansas, USA); K-M: H. paxilli (CD1538, UK); N, O: H. paxilli (CD694, Florida, USA); P-T: H. paxilli (CD1066, FL, USA). (Scale bar = 10 μm.)

  • View in gallery

    Posterior region of Helicotylenchus spp. A: Helicotylenchus spX-1 (CD1051, California, USA); B: Helicotylenchus spVII-2 (CD567, California, USA); C, D: Helicotylenchus spIV-2 (CD761, Florida, USA); E: H. dihystera (CD1067, Texas, USA); F-J: H. dihystera (CD617, Hawaii, USA). (Scale bar = 10 μm.)

  • View in gallery

    Helicotylenchus paxilli (CD694, Florida, USA). A: Entire body; B: Lip region; C-I: Tail variations; J: Lateral field at tail region. (Scale bar: B-J = 10 μm.)

  • View in gallery

    Helicotylenchus microlobus (J94typ, Spain). A: Entire body; B, C: Lip region; D-F: Tail variations; G: Lateral field at tail region. (Scale bar: B-G = 10 μm.)

  • View in gallery

    A, B: Phylogenetic relationships of Helicotylenchus species and populations: Bayesian 50% majority rule consensus tree from two runs as inferred from analysis of the D2-D3 of 28S rRNA gene sequence alignment under the GTR + I + G model. Posterior probabilities equal to or more than 70% are given for appropriate clades. New sequences are indicated by bold font.

  • View in gallery

    Phylogenetic relationships of Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus and closely related species: Bayesian 50% majority rule consensus tree from two runs as inferred from analysis of the ITS rRNA gene sequence alignment under the GTR + I + G model. Posterior probabilities equal to or more than 70% are given for appropriate clades. New sequences are indicated by bold font.

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