Three-dimensional modelling and printing as tools to enhance education and research in Nematology

in Nematology
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International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Nematological Research


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  • Schematic representation of the process to create a 3D model of nematode structures using Autodesk® Maya®. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images (A) provide the base for the surface structure and the construction of the body shape; Light microscopy (LM) images (E) provide information on constructing and designing the inner structures; A border line (B, E1) is used as a guide to create a 3D object after revolving (C, D); polygons (E2) can be added and modified to resemble inner and outer structures to obtain a better representation; the final object (F) can be edited as needed.

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  • 3D models of typical mononchid head region. A-E: 3D images rendering from models built by Autodesk® Maya® software. A, B: En face view showing six inner and outer labial sensilla, and four cephalic sensilla; C: Lateral view; D: Cross view of head shows buccal cavity; E: Different views of anterior pharynx; F: Anaglyph image of head (red/blue glasses needed to see the image in 3D). G-K: 3D prints of the models built by Autodesk® Maya® software (Printer: Makerbot® Replicator® 2, Model: 13 cm high × 6 cm wide); G, H: En face view; I: Lateral view; J: Cross view of head showing position of anterior pharynx; K: Different views of anterior pharynx. Legend for colour bars: CS: cephalic sensilla; OS: outer labial sensilla; IS: inner labial sensilla; BC: buccal cavity; TD: teeth and denticles; AP: amphidial aperture; PR: pharynx.

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