Characterisation of a topotype and other populations of Hemicriconemoides strictathecatus Esser, 1960 (Nematoda: Criconematidae) from Florida with description of H. phoenicis sp. n. from the USA

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The results of morphological and molecular analyses of a Florida topotype and other populations of Hemicriconemoides strictathecatus showed that this sheathoid nematode consists of two morphotypes, both with an average stylet length of more than 70 μm, but having different tail termini, bluntly pointed or rounded. These findings confirmed the morphological similarity of H. strictathecatus with H. mangiferae, which was considered a junior synonym of this species as previously proposed by Decraemer & Geraert (1992, 1996). Populations of a sheathoid nematode with a stylet length ranging from 62.5 to 72.0 μm from Taiwan, China, South Africa and Venezuela and identified in previous studies as H. strictathecatus were found to be morphologically and molecularly different from this species and are now considered as representatives of H. litchi. Another sheathoid nematode population from Florida, considered to be H. mangiferae by McSorley et al. (1980), was also found to be morphologically and molecularly congruous with H. litchi. During nematological surveys in Florida, a new sheathoid nematode was detected on date palms imported from California into Florida and is described herein as H. phoenicis sp. n. This new species is related morphologically to the H. strictathecatus morphotype with pointed tail terminus. Both have a stylet longer than 70 μm. The new species is phylogenetically related to H. strictathecatus and H. litchi. It differs morphologically from other Hemicriconemoides species by the cuticular ornamentation of the annuli, which are marked by coarse longitudinal ridges, grooves and thick margins. Morphological and molecular characterisations of H. cocophillus from Mozambique and Florida, USA are also elucidated in this study. New phylogenies of the genus Hemicriconemoides as inferred from the analyses of the ITS rRNA, D2-D3 of 28S rRNA and partial coxI gene sequences are provided.

Nematology

International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Nematological Research

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Figures

  • Anterior regions of Hemicriconemoides species. A: H. strictathecatus, Key West, FL, USA (topotype population) (CD1497); B, C: H. strictathecatus, Black Point, Miami, FL, USA (CD1435); D: H. strictathecatus, Homestead, FL, USA (CD1473); E: H. strictathecatus, Homestead, FL, USA (CD1472); F, G: H. phoenicis sp. n., Apopka, FL, USA (type population) (CD1403); H: H. phoenicis sp. n., Thermal, CA (intercepted in FL), USA (CD1481); I, J: H. cocophillus, Key West, FL, USA (CD1496). (Scale bar = 50 μm.)

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  • Posterior regions of Hemicriconemoides species. A: H. strictathecatus, Key West, FL, USA (topotype population) (CD1497); B, C: H. strictathecatus, Black Point, Miami, FL, USA (CD1435); D: H. strictathecatus, Homestead, FL, USA (CD1473); E: H. strictathecatus, Homestead, FL, USA (CD1472); F, G: H. phoenicis sp. n., Apopka, FL, USA (type population) (CD1403); H: H. phoenicis sp. n., Thermal, CA (intercepted in FL), USA (CD1481); I, J: H. cocophillus, Key West, FL, USA (CD1496). (Scale bar = 50 μm.)

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  • Hemicriconemoides strictathecatus from Clearwater, Florida. Female. A, B: Anterior body portions; C: Posterior body end; D: Annuli at mid-body; E-G: Shape variations of posterior body region. Juvenile. H: Anterior region; I: Posterior region; J: Tail; K: Annuli at mid-body. (Scale bar = 30 μm.)

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  • Hemicriconemoides strictathecatus from Clearwater, Florida. Female. A: Anterior body end with lateral view of lip region; B: En face view of lip region; C: Annuli at mid-body; D, E: Posterior body portions in ventral and lateral views; F: Entire body.

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  • Hemicriconemoides strictathecatus from Homestead, Florida. Female. A: Anterior body region; B: Posterior body end; C-F: Variations in tail endings; G, H: Annuli at mid-body. (Scale bar = 30 μm.)

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  • Hemicriconemoides cocophillus from Mozambique. Female. A: Anterior body region; B: Posterior body end; C: Annuli at mid-body; D, G: Posterior body portions in lateral view; E, F: Posterior body portions in ventral view. Hemicriconemoides chitwoodi from Florida. Female. J: Lip region; I, H, K, L: Posterior body regions in lateral view. (Scale bar = 30 μm.)

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  • Hemicriconemoides cocophillus from Mozambique. Female. A: Anterior body region in lateral view; B: Lip region en face view; C, D: Annuli at mid-body; E: Posterior body end lateral view; F, G: Posterior body region in ventral view.

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  • Hemicriconemoides phoenicis sp. n. from Apopka, Florida. Female holotype and paratypes. A: Anterior body region; B: Annuli at mid-body; C: Posterior body region; D, E: Variation of posterior body end. Fourth-stage juvenile. F: Anterior body region; G: Posterior body region; H: Annuli at mid-body. Third-stage juvenile. I: Anterior region; J: Posterior region. (Scale bar = 30 μm.)

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  • Hemicriconemoides phoenicis sp. n. from Apopka, Florida. Male paratypes. A: Anterior body region; B, C: Posterior body regions; D: Lateral fields at mid-body. (Scale bar = 30 μm.)

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  • Hemicriconemoides phoenicis sp. n. from Apopka, Florida. Female paratypes. A: Lip region, en face view; B: Anterior body portion with lateral view of lip region; C: Posterior body end in ventral view; D: Posterior body end in lateral view.

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  • Hemicriconemoides phoenicis sp. n. from Thermal, California. Female. A: Anterior body region; B: Posterior body region; C-E: Shape variation of posterior body end; F: Annuli at mid-body. Male. G: Lateral fields at mid-body; H-J: Shape variation of posterior body regions; K: Anterior body region. (Scale bar = 30 μm.)

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  • Phylogenetic relationships within populations and species of the genus Hemicriconemoides as inferred from Bayesian analysis using the D2-D3 of 28S rRNA gene sequence dataset with the GTR + I + G model. Posterior probability more than 70% is given for appropriate clades. Newly obtained sequences are indicated in bold.  Identified as H. strictathecatus by Subbotin et al. (2005) and Van den Berg et al. (2014); ∗∗ identified as H. strictathecatus by Van den Berg et al. (2014).

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  • Phylogenetic relationships within populations and species of the genus Hemicriconemoides as inferred from Bayesian analysis using the ITS rRNA gene sequence dataset with the GTR + I + G model. Posterior probability more than 70% is given for appropriate clades. Newly obtained sequences are indicated in bold. Identified as H. litchi by Chen et al. (2011) and H. strictathecatus by Van den Berg et al. (2014); ∗∗ identified as H. strictathecatus by Van den Berg et al. (2014); ∗∗∗ identified as H. mangiferae by Chen et al. (2011); ∗∗∗∗ identified as H. californianus by Chen et al. (2011).

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  • Phylogenetic relationships between some Hemicriconemoides species as inferred from Bayesian analysis using the coxI gene sequence dataset with the GTR + I + G model. Posterior probability more than 70% is given for appropriate clades. Newly obtained sequences are indicated in bold.

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