Damage thresholds and population dynamics of Meloidogyne chitwoodi on carrot (Daucus carota) at different seed densities

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Yield loss of carrot (Daucus carota) cv. Nerac caused by Meloidogyne chitwoodi and population dynamics of this nematode were studied using a range of 13 nematode densities at three seed densities (2, 4, 18 seeds pot−1) in a climate-controlled glasshouse. Yield and quality data were fitted to Seinhorst’s yield models. Final population densities were fitted to the population dynamic models for sedentary and free-living nematodes. The tolerance limits for yield loss were 0.34, 0.62 and 0.50, while that of quality were 0.012, 0.142 and 0.813 second-stage juveniles (J2) (g dry soil)−1 at increasing seed densities, respectively. The minimum yield (m), increased with seed density: 0.25, 0.30 and 0.50; the minimum quality yield was 0.10, 0.08 and 0.15 J2 (g dry soil)−1 at increasing seed densities, respectively. Both maximum multiplication rates and maximum population densities increased with increasing seed density but were generally low. Carrot cv. Nerac can be considered a bad host for M. chitwoodi.

Damage thresholds and population dynamics of Meloidogyne chitwoodi on carrot (Daucus carota) at different seed densities

in Nematology

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References

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Figures

  • View in gallery

    The relation between the initial population densities (Pi) of second-stage juveniles of Meloidogyne chitwoodi, plotted on a log scale, and A: The number of carrot plants per pot; B: The fraction of carrot plants harvested; C: The number of carrots harvested per pot; and D: The fraction of carrots harvested, at 2, 4 and 18 seeds pot−1.

  • View in gallery

    Galled roots without carrot caused by Meloidogyne chitwoodi. This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/15685411.

  • View in gallery

    The relation between time after planting and A: Weight of below-ground parts (carrot and root); B: Fresh shoot weight; and C: Total fresh weight of carrot cv. Nerac without Meloidogyne chitwoodi at 2, 4 and 18 seeds pot−1. Fitted line according to the logistic equation: F(t)=λ(1+exp(β(logtα))).

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    The relation between the initial population densities (Pi) of Meloidogyne chitwoodi and A: Diam.; B: Length of carrots 85 days after sowing, at seed densities of 2, 4 and 18 seeds pot−1.

  • View in gallery

    The relation between the initial population density (Pi) of Meloidogyne chitwoodi on a log scale, and relative carrot yield at seed densities of A: 2; B: 4; C: 18 seeds pot−1. D: All seed densities compared. Fitted line according to the Seinhorst yield loss equation: y=m+(1m)×0.95PiT1 for Pi>T and y=1 for PiT.

  • View in gallery

    Quality damage of carrots caused by Meloidogyne chitwoodi. A, B: galled forked; C: Galled with rot; D, E: Galled misshapen with rot; F: Galled hairy; G: Galled stubby carrots. This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/15685411.

  • View in gallery

    The relation between the initial population density (Pi) of Meloidogyne chitwoodi and relative quality yield, derived from the number of acceptable carrots, at carrot seed densities of: A: 2; B: 4; C: 18 seeds pot−1. D: All seed densities compared. Fitted line according to Seinhorst yield reduction equation: yq=mq+(1mq)×0.95PiTq1 for Pi>Tq and yq=1 for PiTq.

  • View in gallery

    The relation between initial (Pi) and final (Pf) population densities of Meloidogyne chitwoodi at carrot densities of: A: 2; B: 4; C: 18 seeds pot−1. D: All seed densities compared. Fitted lines according to the equation: Pf=M(1eaPiM) for population dynamics of Seinhorst (1966). Straight dashed line: population equilibrium line (Pi=Pf).

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