The effect of endobacteria on the development and virulence of the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

in Nematology
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

Pine wilt disease (PWD) caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is a destructive forest disease. Recent studies showed that bacteria associated with PWN might play important roles in PWD. In this study, the effects of endobacteria isolated from PWN on the development and virulence of PWN were evaluated. The results revealed that endobacteria isolated from high virulence PWN could partially promote the development of the nematode, while endobacteria from PWN with low virulence could inhibit the development of nematode. Both bacteria-free and non-sterilised nematodes were able to infect microcuttings of Pinus densiflora. The endobacterial isolates, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia NSBx.14 and Achromobacter xylosoxidans ssp. xylosoxidans NSBx.22, enhanced the virulence of low virulence PWN but reduced the virulence of high virulence PWN. The results suggest the pathogenicity of PWN is not affected by loss of bacteria and endobacteria might play a role in the development and virulence of PWN.

The effect of endobacteria on the development and virulence of the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

in Nematology

Sections

References

CaoY.ShenB. (1996). Studies on toxicity of extraction of pine wood nematodes cultivated in artificial media. Journal of Nanjing Forestry University 2013-16.

ChengX.Y.TianX.L.WangY.S.LinR.M.MaoZ.C.ChenN.XieB.Y. (2013). Metagenomic analysis of the pine wood nematode microbiome reveals a symbiotic relationship critical for xenobiotics degradation. Scientific Reports 31869.

CordauxR.SalzatA.M.RaimondM.F.RigaudT.BouchonD. (2004). Evidence for a new feminizing Wolbachia strain in the isopod Armadillidium vulgare: evolutionary implications. Heredity 9378-84.

FangZ.D. (1998). Methods in research of plant disease. Beijing, P.R. ChinaChinese Agricultural Publishing House.

GuoD.ZhaoB.LiR.KulinichO.A.RyssA. (2008). Purification of flagellin of Pseudomonas fluorescens GcM5-1A carried by the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, and its in vitro toxicity to a suspension of cells of Pinus thunbergii. Russian Journal of Nematology 16151-157.

HaegemanA.VanholmeB.JacobJ.VandekerckhoveT.T.ClaeysM.BorgonieG.GheysenG. (2009). An endosymbiotic bacterium in a plant-parasitic nematode: member of a new Wolbachia supergroup. International Journal for Parasitology 391045-1054.

HeY.PanC.S. (2000). The inhibiton of Meloidogyne spp. development by Pasteuria penetrans. Acta Parasitologica et Medica Entomologica Sinica 7145-154.

HongY.D.ZhaoB.G.CaoY.HanZ.M. (2003). Pathogenicity of bacteria carried by pine wood nematodes. Journal of Nanjing Forestry University 2745-48.

HuK.J.WangQ.L.YangB.J. (1994). Pathogenic comparison among 14 isolates of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and B. mucronatus collected from different regions and countries. Forest Research 7381-385.

KawazuK.KanekoN. (1997). Asepsis of the pinewood nematode isolate OkD-3 causes it to lose its pathogenicity. Japanese Journal of Nematology 2776-80.

KawazuK.ZhangH.KanzakiH. (1996a). Accumulation of benzoic acid in suspension cultured cells of Pinus thunbergii Parl. in response to phenylacetic acid administration. Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 601410-1412.

KawazuK.ZhangH.YamashitaH.KanzakiH. (1996b). Relationship between the pathogenicity of the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and phenylacetic acid production. Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 601413-1415.

KawazuK.YamashitaH.KobayashiA.KanzakiH. (1998). Isolation of pine wilting bacteria accompanying pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, and their toxic metabolites. Science Reports of the Faculty of Agriculture Kobe University Japan 871-7.

KawazuK.KanekoN.HiraokaK.YamashitaH.KanzakiH. (1999). Re-isolation of the pathogens from wilted red pine seedlings inoculated with the bacterium-carrying nematode, and the cause of difference in pathogenicity among pine wood nematode isolates. Science Reports of the Faculty of Agriculture Kobe University Japan 881-5.

KiyoharaT.BollaR.I. (1990). Pathogenic variability among populations of the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Forest Science 361061-1076.

KurodaK.ItoS. (1992). Migration speed of pine wood nematodes and activities of other microbes during the development of pine wilt disease in Pinus thunbergii. Journal of the Japanese Forestry Society 74383-389.

LiB. (2000). Ecology. Beijing, P.R. ChinaHigher Education Press.

LiR. (2010). Preliminary study on relationship between bacteria accompanying with Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and pine wilt disease. Shandong Agricultural Sciences 459-61.

LiuX.L. (2007). Analysis of the morphologic and pathogenic variation of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus in China. Ph.D. Thesis Nanjing P.R. China Nanjing Forestry University.

LiuY.T. (2003). The effect of the bacteria carried by pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus on its reproduction and development. Ph.D. Thesis Nanjing China Nanjing Forestry University.

MamiyaY.KiyoharaT. (1972). Description of Bursaphelenchus lignicolus n. sp. (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae) from pine wood and histopathology of nematode-infested trees. Nematologica 18120-124.

MotaM.M.BraaschH.BravoM.A.PenasA.C.BurgermeisterW.MetgeK.SousaE. (1999). First report of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus in Portugal and in Europe. Nematology 1727-734.

NascimentoF.X.HasegawaK.MotaM.VicenteC.S. (2015). Bacterial role in pine wilt disease development – review and future perspectives. Environmental Microbiology Report 751-63.

NiuH.ZhaoL.LuM.ZhangS.SunJ. (2012). The ratio and concentration of two monoterpenes mediate fecundity of the pinewood nematode and growth of its associated fungi. PLoS ONE 7e31716.

OkuH.ShiraishiS.KurozumiS.OhtaH. (1980). Pine wilt toxin, the metabolite of a bacterium associated with a nematode. Naturwissenschaften 67198-199.

ShenP.G.JiaoG.Y.LiH.M. (1995). Difference of virulence of pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus between Nanjing and Japan populations. Forest Pest and Disease 141-2.

State Forestry Administration P.R. China (2013). The State Forestry Administration Announcement No. 2. Available online at http://www.forestry.gov.cn//portal/main/s/3597/content-581163.html.

StouthamerR. (1997). Wolbachia-induced parthenogenesis. In: O’NeillS.L.HoffmannA.A.WerrenJ.H. (Eds). Influential passengers: inherited microorganisms and arthropod reproduction. Oxford, UKOxford University Press pp.  102-124.

TadaM.OmizuA.ShiroishiM. (1981). Effect of phosphate on the growth and toxin-producing ability of a bacterium isolated from pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus lignicolus. Science Reports of the Faculty of Agriculture Kobe University Japan 5735-40.

TamuraH. (1983). Pathogenicity of aseptic Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and associated bacteria to pine seedlings. Japanese Journal of Nematology 131-5.

TokushigeY.KiyoharaT. (1969). Bursaphelenchus sp. in wood of dead pine trees. Journal of the Japanese Forest Society 51193-195.

VicenteC.EspadaM.VieiraP.MotaM. (2012a). Pine wilt disease: a threat to European forestry. European Journal of Plant Pathology 13389-99.

VicenteC.S.NascimentoF.EspadaM.BarbosaP.MotaM.GlickB.R.OliveiraS. (2012b). Characterization of bacteria associated with pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. PLoS ONE 7e46661.

WingfieldM.J.BlanchetteA.KondE. (1983). Comparison of pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus from pine and balsam fir. European Journal of Plant Pathology 13360-373.

WuG.C.TangG.L.LuoX.Y. (2006). Comparative analysis of pathogenicity of pine wood nematode. Acta Agriculturae Shanghai 2261-64.

WuX.Q.YuanW.M.TianX.J.FanB.FangX.YeJ.R.DingX.L. (2013). Specific and functional diversity of endophytic bacteria from pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus with different virulence. International Journal of Biological Sciences 934-44.

XuC.SunG.F.ZhuY.F.LuQ.H.XuS. (1996). Effects of ureaplasma urealyticum (U.U.) infection on the fertility and embryonic development of the rats. Journal of Reproduction and Contraception 21-6.

XuZ.YuJ.CuiL.LiM.LiR.GuoD. (2013). Effects of Pseudomonas fluorescens flagellin on physiological and biochemical characteristics in the suspension cells of Pinus thunbergii. European Journal of Plant Pathology 136729-736.

YangB.J. (2003). Pine wood nematode disease. Beijing, P.R. ChinaForestry Publishing House.

YeJ.R.HuangL. (2012). Some aspects of the pathogen of the pine wilt disease. Forest Pest and Disease 3113-21.

YuanW.M.WuX.Q.YeJ.R.TianX. (2011). Observation by transmission electron microscope and identification of endophytic bacteria isolated from Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and B. mucronatus. Acta Microbiologica Sinica 511071-1077.

ZhangL.YueT.Q.ZhaoB.G.GuoD.S.WuB.W.WangT.S.JinW.LiR.G. (2012). Flagellin promotes propagation of pine wood nematode and its carrying Pseudomonas fluorescens GcM5-1A in callus of Pinus thunbergii through inducing cell death. African Journal of Microbiology Research 61322-1328.

ZhaoB.G.GuoD.S. (2004). Isolation and pathogenicity of a bacterium strain carried by pine wood nematode. Journal of Beijing Forestry University 2657-60.

ZhaoB.G.LinF. (2005). Mutual influences between Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and bacteria it carries. Journal of Nanjing Forestry University 291-4.

ZhuL.H.WuX.Q.DaiP.P.ZhangH.Y. (2010). In vitro plantlet regeneration from seedling explants of Pinus densiflora. Journal of Nanjing Forestry University 3411-14.

ZhuL.H.JiJ.Y.WuX.Q.WangZ.L.YeJ.R. (2011). A method for obtaining aseptic pine wood nematode. Journal of Northeast Forestry University 3965-71.

ZhuL.H.YeJ.R.NegiS.XuX.L.WangZ.L.JiJ.Y. (2012). Pathogenicity of aseptic Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. PLoS ONE 7e38095.

Figures

  • View in gallery

    Hatching time of the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, treated with different bacteria. Treatments labelled with different letters are significantly different according to Tukey’s HSD at P<0.05. Bars represent standard deviations of means.

  • View in gallery

    Hatching of the pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, treated with different bacteria. Treatments labelled with the different letters are significantly different according to Tukey’s HSD at P<0.05. Bars represent standard deviations of means.

  • View in gallery

    The size of males and females of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus treated with different bacteria. Treatments labelled with different letters are significantly different according to Tukey’s HSD at P<0.05. Bars represent standard deviations of means.

  • View in gallery

    Numbers of the pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, treated with different bacteria on PDA plates containing Botrytis cinerea. Treatments labelled with different letters are significantly different according to Tukey’s HSD at P<0.05. Bars represent standard deviations of means.

  • View in gallery

    Population changes of the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, treated with different bacteria 40 days after inoculation on Pinus densiflora microcuttings. Treatments labelled with different letters are significantly different according to Tukey’s HSD at P<0.05. Bars represent standard deviations of means.

Index Card

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 14 14 8
Full Text Views 7 7 7
PDF Downloads 1 1 1
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0