The Arabidopsis thaliana papain-like cysteine protease RD21 interacts with a root-knot nematode effector protein

in Nematology
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The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne chitwoodi secretes effector proteins into the cells of host plants to manipulate plant-derived processes in order to achieve successful parasitism. Mc1194 is a M. chitwoodi effector that is highly expressed in pre-parasitic second-stage juvenile nematodes. Yeast two-hybrid assays revealed Mc1194 specifically interacts with a papain-like cysteine protease (PLCP), RD21A in Arabidopsis thaliana. Mc1194 interacts with both the protease and granulin domains of RD21A. PLCPs are targeted by effectors secreted by bacterial, fungal and oomycete pathogens and the hypersusceptibility of rd21-1 mutants to M. chitwoodi indicates RD21A plays a role in plant-parasitic nematode infection.

Nematology

International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Nematological Research

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Figures

  • qRT-PCR analysis of Mc1194 in Meloidogyne chitwoodi life stages. The developmental expression pattern of Mc1194 was determined in pre-parasitic second-stage juveniles (pre-J2), parasitic J2 (par-J2), mixed sample of third- and fourth-stage juveniles (J3-J4) and adult female nematodes. Data are averages ± standard error of two biologically independent experiments, each consisting of three technical replicates. Meloidogyne chitwoodi internal transcribed spacer 2 rRNA (ITS) was used an internal control to normalise gene expression. Gene expression values were calculated using the 2ΔΔCT method. ∗∗ = P<0.001.

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  • Mc1194 interacts with RD21A in yeast and plant cells. A: Yeast two-hybrid screening revealed Mc1194 interacts with RD21A. To confirm this putative interaction, yeast cells containing the RD21A prey plasmid were co-transformed with the Mc1194 bait vector, empty bait vector or bait vector containing the human Lamin C gene. RD21A plasmids co-transformed with Mc1194 were able to grow on selective media. Conversely, yeast cells co-transformed with RD21A in addition to empty or Lamin C vector failed to grow; B: To determine if RD21A and Mc1194 interact in planta, bimolecular fluorescence complementation was performed. Constructs expressing nEYFP-Mc1194 and cEYFP-RD21A were transiently expressed in tobacco epidermal cells. YFP fluorescence was detected 2 days post infiltration. Scale bar = 20 μm. This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/15685411.

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  • Effects of RD21A gene knockout on Meloidogyne chitwoodi parasitism. The RD21A knockout mutant allele, rd21-1 and wild-type (Col-0) plants were infected with approximately 200 sterilised M. chitwoodi second-stage juveniles. At 7 days post inoculation (dpi) the number of galls were counted. At 28 dpi eggs masses were visualised by phloxine B staining and counted. Values represent mean ± SE of two independent biological replicates. ∗∗ = P<0.001.

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  • Effects of Meloidogyne chitwoodi parasitism on RD21A and AtSerpin1 gene expression. A: qRT-PCR analysis of RD21A expression in gall tissue dissected from Arabidopsis thaliana roots at 7, 14 and 21 dpi with M. chitwoodi. Relative normalised gene expression was calculated in infected tissue relative to uninfected root tissue. Values represent the mean ± standard error from two independent biological replicates with three technical replicates each. ∗∗ = P<0.01; B: qRT-PCR analysis of the protease inhibitor, AtSerpin1 expression in gall tissue dissected from A. thaliana roots at 7, 14 and 21 dpi with M. chitwoodi. Values represent the mean ± SE from two independent biological replicates with three technical replicates each. ∗∗ = P<0.01.

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  • Investigating RD21A domains involved in the RD21A-Mc1194 interaction. A: To gain an insight into which RD21A protein domains are involved in the interaction with Mc1194, the translated insert from yeast two-hybrid prey plasmids pGADT7 were aligned with the full-length RD21A protein sequence. The catalytic domain of RD21A is shown in red, the proline-rich region is shown in blue and the granulin domain is shown in green. The alignment indicated that Mc1194 is interacting with the C-terminal region of the RD21A catalytic domain, the proline-rich region and the granulin domain; B: To determine if Mc1194 interacts with the RD21A domains in planta, bimolecular fluorescence complementation was performed. Constructs expressing nEYFP-Mc1194 were transiently expressed in tobacco cells with cEYFP-RD21A catalytic domain and proline-rich region or cEYFP-RD21A granulin domain. Scale bars = 20 μm; C: The ability of Mc1194 to interact with the granulin domain from other papain-like cysteine proteases was determined. The granulin domain from RD21B, RD21C and XBCP3 were cloned into prey plasmids and co-transformed with Mc1194 in the bait plasmid. All co-transformations grew on the selective media indicating an interaction between the granulin domain and Mc1194. This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/15685411.

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