The gastropod parasitic nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita does not affect non-target freshwater snails Lymnaea stagnalis, Bithynia tentaculata and Planorbarius corneus

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Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita is a lethal parasite of several slug and snail species that has been formulated into a biological control agent. However, the complete host range of this nematode is poorly understood, in particular its potential to affect non-target aquatic snail species. Here we exposed three species of juvenile and adult freshwater snail (Lymnaea stagnalis, Planorbarius corneus and Bithynia tentaculata) to 30 and 150 P. hermaphrodita cm−2 and assessed survival, as well as differences in weight for 66 days. We show that P. hermaphrodita has no effect on the survival of L. stagnalis, P. corneus and B. tentaculata after 66 days of exposure. In summary, we found little evidence of P. hermaphrodita causing mortality to three freshwater snail species at two different life stages and believe that P. hermaphrodita would have little effect on non-target snail species in the wild.

Nematology

International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Nematological Research

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References

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Figures

  • A: Survival of juvenile Lymnaea stagnalis exposed to 0 (black line), 30 (grey line) and 150 (black dashed line) Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita cm−2 for 66 days; B: Survival of adult L. stagnalis exposed to 0 (black line) and 150 (black dashed line) P. hermaphrodita cm−2 for 66 days. Bars represent ±SE.

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  • A: Survival of juvenile Planorbarius corneus exposed to 0 (black line), 30 (grey line) and 150 (black dashed line) Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita cm−2 for 66 days; B: Survival of adult P. corneus exposed to 0 (black line) and 150 (black dashed line) P. hermaphrodita cm−2 for 66 days. Bars represent ±SE.

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  • Survival of Bithynia tentaculata exposed to 0 (black line), 30 (grey line) and 150 (black dashed line) Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita cm−2 for 66 days. Bars represent ±SE.

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  • A: Mean weight of juvenile Planorbarius corneus at day 0 (n=30) (white) and day 66 (n=29) (black) exposed to no nematodes (Control), 30 Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita cm−2 (RR = recommended rate) at day 0 (n=30) (white) and day 66 (n=29) (black) and 150 P. hermaphrodita cm−2 (5 × RR = 5 × recommended rate) at day 0 (n=30) (white) and day 66 (n=29) (black); B: Mean weight of adult P. corneus at day 0 (n=30) (white) and day 66 (n=19) (black) exposed to no nematodes, and 150 P. hermaphrodita cm−2 at day 0 (n=30) (white) and day 66 (n=16) (black); C: Mean weight of Bithynia tentaculata at day 0 (n=30) (white) and day 66 (n=25) (black) exposed to no nematodes, 30 P. hermaphrodita cm−2 at day 0 (n=30) (white) and day 66 (n=26) (black) and 150 P. hermaphrodita cm−2 at day 0 (n=30) (white) and day 66 (n=26) (black). Bars represent ±SE.

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