Allodiplogaster josephi n. sp. and A. seani n. sp. (Nematoda: Diplogastridae), associates of soil-dwelling bees in the eastern USA

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Two commensal associates of bees, Allodiplogaster josephi n. sp. from the Dufour’s gland of a cellophane bee (Colletes thoracicus) from Maryland, USA, and A. seani n. sp. from the abdominal glands of an andrenid bee (Andrena alleghaniensis) from New York, USA, are described and illustrated. Both species were collected as dauers from their respective hosts and cultured on bacteria on tryptic soy broth (TSB) or NGM agar. Allodiplogaster josephi n. sp. and A. seani n. sp. are morphologically closer to each other than to other species of Allodiplogaster, which was recently revised to include 37 valid species. However, the two new species are distinguished by reproductive isolation, shape of the spicule manubrium, host associations and molecular characters, the latter in sequences of the near-full length small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene, D2-D3 expansion segments of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene and partial mitochondrial COI. Morphological characterisation was supplemented by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which revealed furcation of both v5 and v6 male genital papillae, consistent with previous reports for species of the henrichae group of Allodiplogaster.

Allodiplogaster josephi n. sp. and A. seani n. sp. (Nematoda: Diplogastridae), associates of soil-dwelling bees in the eastern USA

in Nematology

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References

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Figures

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    Phylogenetic tree inferred by Bayesian analysis of near-full-length sequences of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene under a GTR + I + G model (lnL = 16 808.3906; freqA = 0.2396; freqC = 0.2077; freqG = 0.2686; freqT = 0.2841; R(a) = 1.2571; R(b) = 2.9775; R(c) = 2.4171; R(d) = 0.5044; R(e) = 5.5076; R(f) = 1; Pinvar = 0.3961; Shape = 0.5573). Tree topologies inferred by Bayesian, maximum likelihood (ML), and maximum parsimony (MP) analyses were largely congruent, including identical relationships among Allodiplogaster species. Posterior probability (middle value) or bootstrap support (right value) values exceeding 50% are given on the Bayesian tree.

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    Allodiplogaster josephi n. sp. A: Right lateral view of male; B: Right lateral view of female; C: Anterior region of female in right lateral view.

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    Stomatal region of Allodiplogaster josephi n. sp. A: Lip region of adult stenostomatous male, showing labial sensilla, cephalic papillae and amphid; B: Left lateral view of stenostomatous form; C: Right lateral view of stenostomatous form; D: Left lateral view of eurystomatous form; D: Right lateral view of eurystomatous form. A-D: dpg = dorsal pharyngeal gland.

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    Allodiplogaster josephi n. sp. A: Anterior gonad of female in right lateral view (od = oviduct; sp = spermatheca; cr = crustaformeria, or shell gland; od/ut = oviduct serving as uterus); B: Crustaformeria in different focal planes; C: Right lateral view of female tail (ph: phasmid); D: Ventral view of female tail (ph = phasmids); E: Left lateral view of male tail; F: Ventral view of male tail; G: Ventral view of vulval region (m = sphincter muscle; vg = vaginal gland); H: Left lateral view of spicule and gubernaculum; I: Ventral view of spicule and gubernaculum. Genital papillae and phasmid (ph) (E, F) labelled following nomenclature of Sudhaus & Fürst von Lieven (2003).

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    Stomatal region of Allodiplogaster josephi n. sp. A, B: Left lateral view of stenostomatous female in different focal planes showing dorsal tooth (A) and left subventral denticles (B); C, D: Right lateral view of stenostomatous female in different focal planes showing dorsal tooth (C) and right subventral tooth (B); E-H: Left lateral view of eurystomatous form in different focal planes showing right subventral tooth and right subventral apodeme (E), dorsal tooth and ventral denticle plate (F), left subventral denticle plate (G), and left lateral denticle plate and left subventral apodeme (H); I, J: Right lateral view of eurystomatous form in different focal planes showing dorsal tooth (I) and right subventral tooth and apodeme (J). This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/15685411.

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    Allodiplogaster josephi n. sp. A: Right lateral view of female adult (d: deirid is encircled at the original level; ep: excretory pore opening); B: Right lateral view of anterior female gonad; C: Different focal plane of (B) (sp: spermatheca; cr: crustaformeria, or shell gland); D: Different focal plane of (B) showing vulva and vagina; E: Ventral view of vulval opening; F, G: Left lateral view of female tail showing rectum and anus (F) and phasmid (G) (a: anus; ph: phasmid); F-J: Ventral view of female tail in different focal planes, showing anus (H), rectal (anal) gland (I) and phasmid (J) (a: anus; rg: rectal gland; ph: phasmid). This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/15685411.

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    Male tail region of Allodiplogaster josephi n. sp. A-D: Left lateral view in different focal planes; E-H: Ventral view in different focal planes; I-M: Ventral view of tail tip region in different focal planes. Genital papillae (v + number) and phasmid (ph) (E, F) are labelled following nomenclature of Sudhaus & Fürst von Lieven (2003). This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/15685411.

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    Scanning electron micrographs of a stenostomatous male of Allodiplogaster josephi n. sp. A: En face view; B: Oblique dorsal view of head; C: Lateral view of tail region. Arrowheads indicate amphidial apertures (A, B).

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    Scanning electron micrographs of females and a male of Allodiplogaster josephi n. sp. A: Oblique dorsal view of head of female stenostomatous form; B: Oblique dorsal face view of stenostomatous female; C: Near right lateral view of head of eurystomatous female; D: En face view of eurystomatous female; E: Ventral view of female tail; F: Lateral view of male spicule tips. Arrowheads indicate amphidial apertures (B, C) or ventral hook (F).

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    Allodiplogaster seani n. sp. A: Right lateral view of male; B: Right lateral view of female; C: Anterior region of female in left lateral view.

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    Stomatal region of Allodiplogaster seani n. sp. A: Left lateral view of stenostomatous form; B: Right lateral view of stenostomatous form; C: Left lateral view of eurystomatous form; D: Right lateral view of eurystomatous form. B-E: dpg = dorsal pharyngeal gland.

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    Allodiplogaster seani n. sp. A: Anterior gonad of female in the right lateral view (od = oviduct; sp = spermatheca; cr = crustaformeria, or shell gland; od/ut = oviduct serving as uterus); B: Right lateral view of female tail (ph = phasmid); C: Ventral view of female tail (ph = phasmid); D: Left lateral view of male tail; E: Ventral view of male tail; F: Ventral view of posterior part of male tail; G: Ventral view of spicule and gubernaculum; H: Left lateral view of spicule and gubernaculum. Genital papillae and phasmid (ph) (E, F) labelled following nomenclature of Sudhaus & Fürst von Lieven (2003).

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    Left lateral view of stomatal region of Allodiplogaster seani n. sp. A-E: Stenostomatous male in different focal planes showing right subventral tooth and apodeme (A), dorsal tooth and ventral denticle (B), dorsal tooth and left subventral and left lateral denticles (C), pro- + mesostegostom and left subventral apodeme (D) and cephalic papilla and amphid (E); F-J: Eurystomatous female in different focal planes, showing right subventral tooth, apodeme, and ventral denticle plate (F), dorsal tooth and left subventral denticle plate (G), dorsal tooth, left lateral denticle plate and left subventral apodeme (H), pro- + mesostegostom and chielostomatal plates (I), and amphid (J). This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/15685411.

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    Ventral view of anterior female gonad of Allodiplogaster seani n. sp. A: Entire gonad; B, C: Different focal planes of spermatheca and crustaformeria; D, E: Different focal planes of vulval region. This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/15685411.

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    Female crustaformeria (shell gland) of Allodiplogaster seani n. sp. Each shell gland cell has two nuclei (arrowheads). This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/15685411.

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    Male tail region of Allodiplogaster seani n. sp. A-E: Left lateral view in different focal planes; F-J: Ventral view in different focal planes. Genital papillae (v + number) and phasmid (ph) are labelled following nomenclature of Sudhaus & Fürst von Lieven (2003). This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/15685411.

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    Scanning electron micrographs of a female stenostomatous form of Allodiplogaster seani n. sp. A: En face view; B: Ventral view of tail; C: Ventral view of vulva; D: Ventral view of anus.

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    Scanning electron micrographs of stenostomatous males of Allodiplogaster seani n. sp. A: Subventral view of head; B: Near face view; C: Lateral view of posterior body; D: Close-up of cloaca with protracted spicules; E: Subventral close-up of tail tip and papillae; F: Ventral view of tail.

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    Taxonomic distribution of split v5 and v6 papillae in Diplogastridae. The tree is summarised from Figure 1.

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