The effects of α-solanine and zinc sulphate on the behaviour of potato cyst nematodes Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida

in Nematology
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Two behavioural assays were carried out: one on the attraction of potato cyst nematodes (PCN), Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida, to solanaceae-specific secondary metabolite α-solanine, the other on the effect of ZnSO4 (a compound known to suppress chemoreceptors). The first assay demonstrated that α-solanine was attractive to second-stage juveniles (J2) of PCN; G. pallida was attracted to concentrations of 10−4 M and 10−5 M, whereas G. rostochiensis was attracted to 10−5 M. Globodera pallida reacted faster than G. rostochiensis to the same concentration of α-solanine. As α-solanine is produced by host plants of PCN, this compound is attributed to kairomones. The response to α-solanine of nematodes pre-exposed to a 3 mM ZnSO4 solution was significantly suppressed compared to that of water control. The effect was observed throughout the whole testing period (30 min). This is the first evidence that both α-solanine and ZnSO4 can affect the behaviour of hatched J2 of PCN.

The effects of α-solanine and zinc sulphate on the behaviour of potato cyst nematodes Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida

in Nematology

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Figures

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    Scheme of potato cyst nematode behavioural assay. A: The spread of chemical stimulus (either α-solanine or control) on the arena (centre), grey area shows the diffusion of chemical; B: Introduction of nematodes into arena, start position; C: Recording of nematode position (after 15, 30 and 60 min).

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    Response (mean ± SE) of Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida second-stage juveniles to α-solanine concentrations (M) and potato root diffusate (PRD) over time. The dotted line indicates the response to the solvent (ethanol), an asterisk above the column indicates a statistically significant difference in response to the stimuli compared with that of the control (ethanol) (Kruskal-Wallis test, P<0.05).

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    Response (mean ± SE) of Globodera pallida second-stage juveniles to α-solanine after pre-treatment in aqueous solution of ZnSO4, or with either of the controls MgSO4 or distilled water (DW). Columns indexed with the same letter were not significantly different (Kruskal-Wallis test, P<0.05).

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