Efficacy of indigenous Steinernema abbasi and Heterorhabditis indica isolates as potential biocontrol agent against Holotrichia consanguinea Blanch. (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)

in Nematology
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?

Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.


Have Institutional Access?

Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?


Holotrichia consanguinea is a serious pest of peanut and sugarcane that attacks other commercial crops in India. The efficacy of two species of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN), Steinernema abbasi and Heterorhabditis indica, against H. consanguinea was tested under laboratory and field conditions. In a laboratory assay, H. indica caused significantly greater mortality (25-100%) than S. abbasi (20-80%) against second instars and H. indica caused 17.5-82.5% mortality in third-instar grub larvae, while S. abbasi caused (10-60%) mortality. These results revealed that second-instar grubs were more susceptible than third-instar grubs and efficacy of EPN against H. consanguinea varies with nematode species. The penetration and multiplication rate for H. indica was significantly higher than those of S. abbasi. Infective juveniles (IJ) of both nematode species and a commonly used insecticide (phorate) were tested against this insect in a field experiment. Field trail data showed that the percentage reduction in H. consanguinea grub population was significantly higher using H. indica at a dose of 2.5 × 109 IJ ha−1 than S. abbasi and phorate application. Phorate application was more efficient in reducing the grub population than both nematode species at the lower application rate (1.25 × 109 IJ ha−1). Overall, these experiments suggest that H. indica may be a promising biocontrol agent against H. consanguinea.


International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Nematological Research



AbbottW.S. (1925). A method for computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. Journal of Economic Entomology 18, 265-267.

BeddingR.A.AkhurstR.J. (1975). A simple technique for the detection of insect parasitic rhabditid nematodes in soil. Nematologica 21, 109-110.

BhawaneG.P.MamlayyaA.B.WaghS.R.ChauguleA.K. (2012). Diversity of white grub beetles and their host range from Northern Western Ghats, Kolhapur district, (MS) India. The Bioscan 7, 589-596.

CampbellJ.F.LewisE.E. (2002). Entomopathogenic nematode host search strategies. In: LewisE.E.CampbellJ.F.SukhdeoM.V.K. (Eds). The behavioural ecology of parasites. Wallingford, UK, CABI International.

DesaiM.T.PatelR.M. (1965). Some observation on the biology and control of white grubs in soil (Holotrichia consanguinea Blanchard) affecting groundnut and cereals in Gujarat. Indian Journal of Entomology 27, 89-94.

DeseoK.V.BartocciR.TartagliaA.RovestiL. (1990). Entomopathogenic nematodes for control of scarab larvae. International Organisation for Biological Control (IOBC) Bulletin 14, 57-58.

GeorgisR.GauglerR. (1991). Predictability in biological control using entomopathogenic nematodes. Journal of Economic Entomology 84, 713-720.

GowdaM.T.PatilJ.MansheppaD.RangasamyV.VergheseA. (2016). Entomopathogenic nematodes: a potential biocontrol agent against eggplant ash weevil Myllocerus subfaciatus Guerin (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Nematology 18, 743-750.

GrewalP.S.PowerK.T.GrewalS.K.SuggarsA.HauprichtS. (2004). Enhanced consistency in biological control of white grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) with new strains of entomopathogenic nematodes. Biological Control 30, 73-82.

GuoW.X.YanX.ZhaoG.Y.HanR.C. (2013). Efficacy of entomopathogenic Steinernema and Heterorhabditis nematodes against white grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in peanut fields. Journal of Economic Entomology 106, 1112-1117.

GuptaB.D.AvasthyP.N. (1957). First record of white grub, Lachnosterna consanguinea Blanch in sugarcane in India. Current Science 26, 114-115.

KayaH.K.GauglerR. (1993). Entomopathogenic nematodes. Annual Review of Entomology 38, 181-206.

KleinM.G. (1993). Biological control of scarabs with entomopathogenic nematodes. In: BeddingR.AkhurstR.KayaH. (Eds). Nematodes and the biological control of insect pests. East Melbourne, VIC, Australia, CSIRO, pp.  49-58.

KoppenhöferA.M.FuzyE.M. (2003). Steinernema scarabaei for the control of white grubs. Biological Control 28, 47-59.

KoppenhöferA.M.GrewalP.S.FuzyE.M. (2006). Virulence of the entomopathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, H. zealandica, and Steinernema scarabaei against five white grub species (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) of economic importance in turfgrass in North America. Biological Control 38, 397-404.

KoppenhöferA.M.GrewalP.S.FuzyE.M. (2007). Differences in penetration routes and establishment rates of four entomopathogenic nematode species into four white grub species. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 94, 184-195.

LiuQ.LiJ.XuX.SunC.KangY.ZhouH.HuD.MaJ.LiS. (2007). The preliminary study on grub control with Rhabditis (Oscheius) spp. in peanut fields. Acta Botany Boreal-Occident Sinica 22, 250-253.

MannionC.M.JanssonR.K. (1992). Comparison of ten entomopathogenic nematodes for control of sweet potato weevil (Coleoptera: Apionidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 85, 1642-1650.

McCoyC.W.Shapiro-IlanD.I.DuncanL.W.NguyenK. (2000). Entomopathogenic nematodes and other natural enemies as mortality factors for larvae of Diaprepes abbreviatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Biological Control 19, 182-190.

SAS Institute (2011). SAS version 9.3 system options: reference, 2nd edition. Cary, NC, USA, SAS Institute.

Shapiro-IlanD.I.DuncanL.W.LaceyL.A.HanR. (2005). Orchard crops. In: GrewalP.S.EhlersR.-U.Shapiro-IlanD.I. (Eds). Nematodes as biological control agents. Wallingford, UK, CABI Publishing, pp.  215-229.

Shapiro-IlanD.I.HanR.C.DolinksiC. (2012). Entomopathogenic nematode production and application technology. Journal of Nematology 44, 206-217.

ShervinS.JavadK.MojtabaH.MohammadrezaR. (2014). Efficacy of two entomopathogenic nematode species as potential biocontrol agents against the rosaceae longhorned beetle, Osphranteria coerulescens, under laboratory conditions. Nematology 16, 729-737.

ToepferS.KurtzB.KuhlmannU. (2010). Influence of soil on the efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes in reducing Diabrotica virgifera virgifera in maize. Journal of Pest Science 83, 257-264.

WardA.MooreC.AnithaV.WightmanJ.RogersD.J. (2002). Identification of sex pheromone of Holotrichia reynaudi. Journal of Chemical Ecology 28, 515-522.

WoodringJ.L.KayaH.K. (1988). Steinernematidand heterorhabditid nematodes. In: A handbook of biology and techniques. Series Bulletin 331. Fayetteville, AR, USA, Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station.


  • Corrected mortality of second and third instars of Holotrichia consanguinea at different concentrations of entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema abbasi and Heterorhabditis indica, at 7 days after treatment. Different letters above bars indicate statistically different values for different nematode concentrations at using Tukey’s test (P<0.05). Bars = standard error (n = 40).

    View in gallery
  • Percentage reduction of second-instar grubs of Holotrichia consanguinea, at 2 and 3 weeks after different treatments in a farmer’s field at Belgaum, India. Different letters on the top of bars indicate statistically different values for different nematode concentrations at using Tukey’s test (P<0.05). Bars = standard error. Sa, Steinernema abbasi; Hi, Heterorhabditis indica; 1 = 1.25 × 109 IJ ha−1, 2 = 2.5 × 109 IJ ha−1. Phorate was used at the rate of 2500 ml ha−1 as a drench application.

    View in gallery


Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 13 13 6
Full Text Views 3 3 3
PDF Downloads 0 0 0
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0