Genetic diversity of Meloidogyne spp. parasitising potato in Brazil and aggressiveness of M. javanica populations on susceptible cultivars

in Nematology
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Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) significantly impact potato production worldwide and in Brazil they are considered one of the most important group of nematodes affecting potatoes. The objectives of this study were to survey Meloidogyne spp. associated with potatoes in Brazil, determine their genetic diversity and assess the aggressiveness of M. javanica on two susceptible potato cultivars. Fifty-seven root-knot nematode populations were identified using esterase phenotyping, including Meloidogyne javanica, M. incognita, M. arenaria and M. ethiopica. Overall, root-knot nematodes were present in ca 43% of sampled sites, in which M. javanica was the most prevalent species, and the phenotypes Est J3, J2a and J2 occurred in 91.2, 6.7 and 2.1% of the positive samples, respectively. Other species, such as M. incognita, M. arenaria and M. ethiopica, were found less frequently and occurred at rates of 6.4, 4.3 and 2.1% of the samples, respectively. Sometimes, M. javanica was found in mixtures with other root-knot nematodes in ca 10.6% of sites containing Meloidogyne. After confirming the identification of 17 isolates of M. javanica and one isolate each of M. incognita, M. arenaria and M. ethiopica by SCAR markers, the populations were used to infer their genetic diversity using RAPD markers. Results revealed low intraspecifc genetic diversity among isolates (13.9%) for M. javanica. Similarly, M. javanica sub-populations (J2a) clustered together (81% of bootstrap), indicating subtle variation from typical J3 populations. The aggressiveness of four populations of M. javanica from different Brazilian states on two susceptible potato cultivars was tested under glasshouse conditions. Results indicated differences in aggressiveness among these populations and showed that potato disease was proportional to nematode reproduction factor.

Genetic diversity of Meloidogyne spp. parasitising potato in Brazil and aggressiveness of M. javanica populations on susceptible cultivars

in Nematology

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Figures

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    Esterase profiling (Est) of Meloidogyne spp. populations associated with potato fields in southern Brazil. The relative mobility (Rm) of esterase bands and the overall occurrence (%) of M. javanica (J3, J2, J2a), M. incognita (I2), M. arenaria (A2) and M. ethiopica (E3) in three states: Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Santa Catarina (SC) and Paraná (PR).

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    SCAR PCR amplification of Meloidogyne spp. parasitising potatoes in southern Brazil. Isolate codes are listed in Table 2. M: 1 kb DNA plus ladder (Invitrogen); (–): negative control.

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    Genetic diversity observed on 20 Meloidogyne spp. populations associated with potato fields in southern Brazil using RAPD markers. Numbers represent isolate codes listed in Table 2. RAPD patterns were generated using primer OPC-02. M: 1 kb DNA plus ladder (Invitrogen); (–): negative control.

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    Neighbour-Joining tree showing the phylogenetic relationships of Meloidogyne sp. and M. javanica from potato fields based on RAPD dataset. Numbers on the branches are bootstrap values for 1000 replicates and only values above 50% are shown. Isolate codes are given in Tables 1 and 2.

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    Aggressiveness of different populations of Meloidogyne javanica (P1, P2, P3: Est J1 and P4, Est J2a) measured by the gall (popcorn) symptom in potato tuber cvs BRS Clara and Agata. This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/15685411.

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