Oilseed radish/black oat subsidiary crops can help regulate plant-parasitic nematodes under non-inversion tillage in an organic wheat-potato rotation

in Nematology
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

Soil conservation is one of the major challenges for agriculture in the 21st century. For this reason, non-inversion tillage systems including subsidiary crops have become popular over the last three decades in Europe. However, the adoption of new agricultural practices may change the diversity and abundance of certain pests and diseases. For example, plant-parasitic nematodes that are major threats towards cultivated plants may be promoted if good hosts, such as certain subsidiary crops and weeds, occur more frequently. The indigenous plant-parasitic nematode fauna under organic farming systems is already adapted to diverse crop rotations and usually dominated by nematodes with broad host ranges. These may be further enhanced in organic farming systems if non-inversion tillage is introduced, which generally increases the abundance and biomass of certain weeds. We evaluated the early effects of non-inversion tillage and subsidiary crops in an organic wheat-potato rotation on plant-parasitic nematodes in two field experiments in two successive years. The total densities of plant-parasitic nematodes increased from an initial 1260 nematodes (100 ml soil)−1 at the start of the experiment to 1850 and 1700 nematodes (100 ml soil)−1 after wheat under non-inversion and conventional tillage, respectively. Plant-parasitic nematode densities then decreased on average to 1100 and 560 nematodes (100 ml soil)−1 after subsidiary crops and potatoes, respectively. Parasitic nematode densities tended to be higher under non-inversion than conventional tillage, except where oilseed radish and black oats had been used as cover crops. For the latter, no differences between tillage treatments occurred. In the second experiment, about 1700 free-living nematodes (100 ml soil)−1 were found under conventional tillage without mulch while under reduced tillage with mulch their numbers were significantly higher at 3100 nematodes (100 ml soil)−1. We conclude that an appropriate choice of subsidiary crops can be an important management factor for the long term sustainability of non-inversion tillage systems.

Oilseed radish/black oat subsidiary crops can help regulate plant-parasitic nematodes under non-inversion tillage in an organic wheat-potato rotation

in Nematology

Sections

References

AlbyT.FerrisJ.M.FerrisV.R. (1983). Dispersion and distribution of Pratylenchus scribneri and Hoplolaimus galeatus in soybean fields. Journal of Nematology 15418-426.

BalotaE.L.CalegariA.NakataniA.S.CoyneM.S. (2014). Benefits of winter cover crops and no-tillage for microbial parameters in a Brazilian oxisol: a long-term study. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment 19731-40. DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2014.07.010

BarkerK.R.KoenningS.R. (1998). Developing sustainable systems for nematode management. Annual Review of Phytopathology 36165-205. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.phyto.36.1.165

BarkerK.R.NusbaumC.J.NelsonL.A. (1969). Seasonal population dynamics of selected plant-parasitic nematodes as measured by three extraction procedures. Journal of Nematology 1232-239.

BriarS.S.GrewalP.S.SomasekharN.StinnerD.MillerS.A. (2007). Soil nematode community, organic matter, microbial biomass and nitrogen dynamics in field plots transitioning from conventional to organic management. Applied Soil Ecology 37256-266. DOI: 10.1016/j.apsoil.2007.08.004

CarrP.GramigG.LiebigM.A. (2013). Impacts of organic zero tillage systems on crops, weeds, and soil quality. Sustainability 53172-3201. DOI: 10.3390/su5073172

CarterM.R.NoronhaC.PetersR.D.KimpinskiJ. (2009). Influence of conservation tillage and crop rotation on the resilience of an intensive long-term potato cropping system: restoration of soil biological properties after the potato phase. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment 13332-39. DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2009.04.017

CourtneyW.D.PolleyD.MillerV.L. (1955). TAF, an improved fixative in nematode technique. Plant Disease Reporter 39570-571.

DonaldP.A.TylerD.D.BoykinD.L. (2009). Short- and long-term tillage effects on Heterodera glycines reproduction in soybean monoculture in west Tennessee. Soil and Tillage Research 104126-133. DOI: 10.1016/j.still.2009.02.002

DormannC.F.KühnI. (2009). Angewandte Statistik für die biologischen Wissenschaften. Leipzig, GermanyHelmholtz Zentrum für Umweltforschung UFZ.

EsmenjaudD.RivoalR.MarzinH. (1990). Numbers of Pratylenchus spp. (Nematoda) in the field on winter wheat in different cereal rotations. Nematologica 36217-226. DOI: 10.1163/002925990X00185

FAO (2015). Economic aspects of conservation agriculture. Available online at http://www.fao.org/ag/ca/5.html.

FerrisH. (2010). Contribution of nematodes to the structure and function of the soil food web. Journal of Nematology 4263-67.

FloriniD.A.LoriaR. (1990). Reproduction of Pratylenchus penetrans on potato and crops grown in rotation with potato. Journal of Nematology 22106-112.

FreckmanD.W. (1988). Bacterivorous nematodes and organic-matter decomposition. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment 24195-217. DOI: 10.1016/0167-8809(88)90066-7

FreckmanD.W.CaswellE.P. (1985). The ecology of nematodes in agroecosystems. Annual Review of Phytopathology 23275-296. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.py.23.090185.001423

FuS.ColemanD.C.HendrixP.F.CrossleyD.A.Jr. (2000). Responses of trophic groups of soil nematodes to residue application under conventional tillage and no-till regimes. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 321731-1741. DOI: 10.1016/S0038-0717(00)00091-2

GallaherR.N.DicksonD.W.CorellaJ.F.HewlettT.E. (1988). Tillage and multiple cropping systems and population dynamics of phytoparasitic nematodes. Annals of Applied Nematology 2090-94.

GlazerI.OrionD. (1983). Studies on anhydrobiosis of Pratylenchus thornei. Journal of Nematology 15333-338.

GovaertsB.MezzalamaM.SayreK.D.CrossaJ.NicolJ.M.DeckersJ. (2006). Long-term consequences of tillage, residue management, and crop rotation on maize/wheat root rot and nematode populations in subtropical highlands. Applied Soil Ecology 32305-315. DOI: 10.1016/j.apsoil.2005.07.010

GruverL.S.WeilR.R.ZasadaI.A.SardanelliS.MomenB. (2010). Brassicaceous and rye cover crops altered free-living soil nematode community composition. Applied Soil Ecology 451-12. DOI: 10.1016/j.apsoil.2009.11.007

HallmannJ.KiewnickS. (2015). Diseases caused by nematodes in organic agriculture. In: FinckhM.R.van BruggenA.H.C.TammL. (Eds). Plant diseases and their management in organic agriculture. St. Paul, MI, USAAmerican Phytopathological Society pp.  91-105.

HendrixP.F.ParmeleeR.W.CrossleyD.A.ColemanD.C.OdumE.P.GroffmanP.M. (1986). Detritus food webs in conventional and no-tillage agroecosystems. BioScience 36374-380. DOI: 10.2307/1310259

HirlingW. (1977). Ölrettich (Raphanus oleiferus), eine Feindpflanze für Pratylenchus neglectus/Oil radish (Raphanus oleiferus) a crop hostile for Pratylenchus neglectus. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz/Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection 84410-429.

HobbsP.R. (2007). Conservation agriculture: what is it and why is it important for future sustainable food production? The Journal of Agricultural Science 145127-137. DOI: 10.1017/S0021859607006892

HooperD.J.HallmannJ.SubbotinS.A. (2005). Methods for extraction, processing and detection of plant and soil nematodes. In: LucM.SikoraR.A.BridgeJ. (Eds). Plant parasitic nematodes in subtropical and tropical agriculture. Wallingford, UKCAB International pp.  53-86.

KnightK.W.L.BarberC.J.PageG.D. (1997). Plant-parasitic nematodes of New Zealand recorded by host association. Journal of Nematology 29640-656.

KorthalsG.VisserJ.ThodenT.MolendijkL. (2010). Evaluation of biofumigation crops for the control of Pratylenchus penetrans and Verticillium dahliae. Berichte aus dem Julius Kühn-Institut 15554-59.

McSorleyR. (2011). Overview of organic amendments for management of plant-parasitic nematodes, with case studies from Florida. Journal of Nematology 4369-81.

McSorleyR.GallaherR.N. (1993). Effect of crop rotation and tillage on nematode densities in tropical corn. Supplement to Journal of Nematology 25814-819.

McSorleyR.GallaherR.N. (1996). Effect of yard waste compost on nematode densities and maize yield. Journal of Nematology 28655-660.

MelakeberhanH.BirdG.W.GoreR. (1997). Impact of plant nutrition on Pratylenchus penetrans infection of Prunus avium rootstocks. Journal of Nematology 29381-388.

MendiburuF. (2010). Agricolae: statistical procedures for agricultural research. Available online at https://rdrr.io/cran/agricolae/man/agricolae-package.html.

MintonN.A. (1986). Impact of conservation tillage on nematode populations. Journal of Nematology 18135-140.

MorrisN.L.MillerP.C.H.OrsonJ.H.Froud-WilliamsR.J. (2010). The adoption of non-inversion tillage systems in the United Kingdom and the agronomic impact on soil, crops and the environment – a review. Soil and Tillage Research 1081-15. DOI: 10.1016/j.still.2010.03.004

MoyerJ.R.RomanE.S.LindwallC.W.BlackshawR.E. (1994). Weed management in conservation tillage systems for wheat production in North and South America. Crop Protection 13243-259.

NeherD.A. (2010). Ecology of plant and free-living nematodes in natural and agricultural soil. Annual Review of Phytopathology 48371-394. DOI: 10.1146/annurev-phyto-073009-114439

NicholsV.VerhulstN.CoxR.GovaertsB. (2015). Weed dynamics and conservation agriculture principles: a review. Field Crops Research 18356-68. DOI: 10.1016/j.fcr.2015.07.012

O’BannonJ.H.InserraR.N. (1989). Helicotylenchus species as crop damaging parasitic nematodes. Nematology Circular 1651-3.

OkadaH.HaradaH. (2007). Effects of tillage and fertilizer on nematode communities in a Japanese soybean field. Applied Soil Ecology 35582-598. DOI: 10.1016/j.apsoil.2006.09.008

OksanenJ.KindtR.BlanchetF.G.LegendreP.MinchinP.R.O’HaraR.B.SimpsonG.L.SolymosP.StevensM.H.H.WagnerH. (2015). Community ecology package. Available online at https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/vegan/vegan.pdf.

OSCAR (2016). Optimising subsidiary crop applications in rotation. Final report. Available online at http://cordis.europa.eu/docs/results/289/289277/final1-final-report-complete.pdf.

PankajSharmaH.K.GaurH.S.SinghA.K. (2006). Effect of zero tillage on the nematode fauna in a rice-wheat cropping system. Nematologia Mediterranea 34175-178.

PeignéJ.BallB.C.Roger-EstradeJ.DavidC. (2007). Is conservation tillage suitable for organic farming? A review. Soil Use and Management 23129-144.

R Core Team (2013). R: a language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna, AustriaR Foundation for Statistical Computing.

RahmanL.ChanK.Y.HeenanD.P. (2007). Impact of tillage, stubble management and crop rotation on nematode populations in a long-term field experiment. Soil and Tillage Research 95110-119. DOI: 10.1016/j.still.2006.11.008

SarathchandraS.U.GhaniA.YeatesG.W.BurchG.CoxN.R. (2001). Effect of nitrogen and phosphate fertilisers on microbial and nematode diversity in pasture soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 33953-964. DOI: 10.1016/S0038-0717(00)00245-5

SchmidtJ.H.BergkvistG.CampigliaE.RadicettiE.WittwerR.A.FinckhM.R.HallmanJ. (2017). Effect of tillage subsidiary crops and fertilization on plant-parasitic nematodes in a range of agro-environmental conditions within Europe. Annals of Applied Biology in press.

SharmaR.D. (1971). Studies on the plant parasitic nematode Tylenchorhynchus dubius. Wageningen, The NetherlandsVeenman.

TalaveraM.VanstoneV.A. (2001). Monitoring Pratylenchus thornei densities in SOCL and roots under resistant (Triticum turgidum durum) and susceptible (Triticum aestivum) wheat cultivars. Phytoparasitica 2929-35. DOI: 10.1007/BF02981811

ThomasS.H. (1978). Population densities of nematodes under seven tillage regimes. Journal of Nematology 1024-27.

ThomasS.H.SchroederJ.MurrayL.W. (2005). The role of weeds in nematode management. Weed Science 53923-928. DOI: 10.1614/WS-04-053R.1

ThompsonJ.P. (1992). Soil biotic and biochemical factors in a long-term tillage and stubble management experiment on a vertisol. 2. Nitrogen deficiency with zero tillage and stubble retention. Soil and Tillage Research 22339-361. DOI: 10.1016/0167-1987(92)90048-G

TownshendJ.L.PotterJ.W. (1976). Evaluation of forage legumes, grasses, and cereals as hosts of forage nematodes. Nematologica 22196-201. DOI: 10.1163/187529276X00292

van BruggenA.H.C.SemenovA.M. (2015). Soil health and soilborne diseases in organic agriculture. In: FinckhM.R.van BruggenA.H.C.TammL. (Eds). Plant diseases and their management in organic agriculture. St. Paul, MI, USAAmerican Phytopathological Society pp.  67-89.

VanstoneV.A.RussM.H. (2001). Ability of weeds to host the root lesion nematodes Pratylenchus neglectus and P. thornei I. Grass weeds. Australasian Plant Pathology 30245-250. DOI: 10.1071/AP01025

VisserJ.H.M.MolendijkL.P.G. (2015). Waardplantgeschiktheid nieuwe Groenbemesters voor plant parasitaire Aaltjes. Business Unit Akkerbouw Groene Ruimte en Vollegrondsgroenten Lelystad.

WatsonC.A.AtkinsonD.GoslingP.JacksonL.R.RaynsF.W. (2002). Managing soil fertility in organic farming systems. Soil Use and Management 18239-247. DOI: 10.1111/j.1475-2743.2002.tb00265.x

WoodF.H. (1973). Biology and host range of Paratylenchus projectus Jenkins, 1956 (Nematoda: Criconematidae) from a sub-alpine tussock grassland. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 16381-384.

WoutsW.M.YeatesG.W. (1994). Helicotylenchus species (Nematoda: Tylenchida) from native vegetation and undisturbed soils in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 21213-224. DOI: 10.1080/03014223.1994.9517988

Figures

  • View in gallery

    Nematode dynamics over time (before wheat, after wheat, after subsidiary crops (SC), and after potatoes) for the four most common genera (Helicotylenchus, Paratylenchus, Pratylenchus and Tylenchorhynchus) and others (Criconematidae, Meloidogyne) affected by (A) conventional (CT) and non-inversion (RT) tillage and (B) spring vetch (Vetch) and oilseed radish/black oat (OR/BO) cover crops sown after wheat compared to a green fallow (Fallow). Data are averaged across both experiments. Different capital and lower letters indicate statistically different treatments for total nematode densities and single nematode genera, respectively, after respective crops (P<0.05, protected LSD-test).

  • View in gallery

    Redundancy analysis biplots for (A) Experiment 1 and (B) Experiment 2 of plant-parasitic nematode species dynamics (ln(Pf+1)ln(Pi+1)) averaged across compost and replicates. Responses to the interactions of main crops (wheat, triangles point up; potato, squares) and subsidiary crops (green fallow, circles; vetch, triangles point down; oilseed radish/black oat (OR/BO), diamonds) with tillage (CT, conventional tillage, unfilled symbols; RT, non-inversion tillage, filled symbols) are shown including replicates as co-variables. Axis labels indicate percentage of explained variance. Arrows show directions of increasing nematode species abundance. Abbreviations: Cri = Criconematidae, Hel = Helicotylenchus, Mel = Meloidogyne, Par = Paratylenchus, Pra = Pratylenchus, Tyl = Tylenchorhynchus.

  • View in gallery

    Densities of free-living nematodes (untransformed means + SD) after harvest of potatoes in the second experiment as affected by conventional (CT) and non-inversion (RT) tillage, subsidiary crops (summer vetch, oilseed radish/ black oat (OR/BO), and green fallow), and yard waste compost (+YWC, with; −YWC, without); P-values and not significant (n.s.) factors are results of the 3-factorial ANOVA with ln(x+1)-transformed data including replicates as conditional variables; df are 3 and 30 for tillage and subsidiary crops and compost, respectively.

Information

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 27 27 12
Full Text Views 68 68 62
PDF Downloads 7 7 5
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0