Description of Bursaphelenchus taphrorychi sp. n. (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae), the second Bursaphelenchus species from larval galleries of the beech bark beetle, Taphrorychus bicolor (Herbst.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), in European beech, Fagus sylvatica L.

in Nematology
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

Bursaphelenchus taphrorychi sp. n. is described from the bark of European beech, Fagus sylvatica. All propagative stages of the nematode are numerous in larval galleries of the beech bark beetle, Taphrorychus bicolor, while dauer juveniles are transmitted to new breeding trees under the elytra of adult beetles. The new species is characterised by the body length of 782 (717-858) μm in female and 638 (475-789) μm in male, moderately slender body (a = 35.0 (31.7-36.5) and 35.5 (31.4-37.1) in female and male, respectively), spicules 12.0-16.0 μm long, lateral fields with four incisures (i.e., three bands), and the arrangement of the seven male caudal papillae (i.e., a single precloacal ventromedian papilla (P1), one pair of adcloacal ventrosublateral papillae (P2), one postcloacal pair (P3) located at ca 60% of the tail length, posterior to the cloacal aperture, and one pair (P4) of subventral papillae of a similar size as the previous pair, but with somewhat sunken tips, located near base of bursa). In the number and arrangement of caudal papillae, stout and curved spicules with prominent rostrum and condylus, small vulval flap, body narrowed posterior to vulva, four incisures in the lateral fields, and long post-uterine sac, B. taphrorychi sp. n. shares most of the key morphological characters with members of the sexdentati-group. However, the newly described species is unique amongst Bursaphelenchus species of this group by the combination of shape of female tail, shape of spicules, and some other morphometric characters. The close relation of B. taphrorychi sp. n. with members of the sexdentati-group has been confirmed by DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the 28S rDNA region. The taxonomic separation of the new species is also confirmed by the unique molecular profile of the ITS region (ITS-RFLP). In laboratory rearing, B. taphrorychi sp. n. can develop and reproduce on Botrytis cinerea cultures.

Description of Bursaphelenchus taphrorychi sp. n. (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae), the second Bursaphelenchus species from larval galleries of the beech bark beetle, Taphrorychus bicolor (Herbst.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), in European beech, Fagus sylvatica L.

in Nematology

Sections

References

BaujardP. (1980). Trois nouvelles espèces de Bursaphelenchus (Nematoda: Tylenchida) et remarques sur le genre. Revue de Nématologie 3167-177.

BraaschH.ShönfeldU.PolomskiJ.BurgermeisterW. (2004). Bursaphelenchus vallesianus sp. n. – a new species of the Bursaphelenchus sexdentati group. Nematologia Mediterranea 3271-79.

BraaschH.BurgermeisterW.GuJ. (2009). Revised intrageneric grouping of Bursaphelenchus Fuchs, 1937 (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae). Journal of Nematode Morphology and Systematics 1265-88.

BrzeskiM.W.BaujardP. (1997). Morphology and morphometrics of Bursaphelenchus (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae) species from pine wood of Poland. Annales Zoologici 47305-319.

BurgermeisterW.MetgeK.BraaschH.BuchbachE. (2005). ITS-RFLP patterns for differentiation of 26 Bursaphelenchus species (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae) and observations on their distribution. Russian Journal of Nematology 1329-42.

BurgermeisterW.BraaschH.MetgeK.GuJ.SchröderT.WoldtE. (2009). ITS-RFLP analysis, an efficient tool for differentiation of Bursaphelenchus species. Nematology 11649-668. DOI: 10.1163/156854108/399182

ChengX.-Y.XieP.-Z.ChengF.-X. (2009). Competitive displacement of the native species Bursaphelenchus mucronatus by an alien species Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Nematoda: Aphelenchida: Aphelenchoididae): a case of successful invasion. Biological Invasions 11205-213.

DayiM.CalinM.AkbulutS.GuJ.SchröderT.VieiraP.BraaschH. (2014). Morphological and molecular characterisation of Bursaphelenchus andrassyi sp. n. (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae) from Romania and Turkey. Nematology 16207-216. DOI: 10.1163/15685411-00002759

De LeyP.FélixM.A.FrisseL.M.NadlerS.A.SternbergP.W.ThomasW.K. (1999). Molecular and morphological characterisation of two reproductively isolated species with mirror-image anatomy (Nematoda: Cephalobidae). Nematology 1591-612. DOI: 10.1163/156854199508559

FerrisV.R.FerrisJ.M.FaghihiJ. (1993). Variation in spacer ribosomal DNA in some cyst-forming species of plant parasitic nematodes. Fundamental and Applied Nematology 16177-184.

FuchsA.G. (1937). Neue parasitische und halbparasitische Nematoden bei Borkenkäfern und einige andere Nematoden. I. Teil die Parasiten derWaldgartner Myelophilus piniperda L. und minor Hartig und die Genera Rhabditis Dujardin, 1845 und Aphelenchus Bastian, 1865. Zoologische Jahrbücher Abteilung für Systematik Oekologie und Geographie der Tiere Jena 70291-380.

FutaiK. (2013). Pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Annual Review of Phytopathology 5161-83. DOI: 10.1146/annurev-phyto-081211-172910

GuJ.TomalakM.HeJ.FangY. (2017). Bursaphelenchus crenati Rühm, 1956 (Tylenchina: Aphelenchoididae), a nematode associated with the Greater ash bark beetle, Hylesinus crenatus Fabricius, in dying ash, Fraxinus excelsior L., in Europe. Nematology 19413-426. DOI: 10.1163/15685411-00003058

KanzakiN.AikawaT.Giblin-DavisR.M. (2009). Bursaphelenchus tokyoensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchinae) isolated from dead wood of the Japanese red pine, Pinus densiflora Sieb. & Zucc., in Japan. Nematology 11171-180. DOI: 10.1163/156854109X429510

KanzakiN.KawaguchiE.AikawaT.MaeharaN. (2010). On Bursaphelenchus yongensis Gu, Braasch, Burgermeister, Brandstetter & Zhang, 2006 in Japan. Nematology 12803-806. DOI: 10.1163/138855410X499067

KanzakiN.MaeharaN.AikawaT.MasuyaH.Giblin-DavisR.M. (2011). Description of Bursaphelenchus kiyoharai n. sp. (Tylenchina: Aphelenchoididae) with remarks on the taxonomic framework of the Parasitaphelenchinae Rühm, 1956 and Aphelenchoidinae Fuchs, 1937. Nematology 13787-804. DOI: 10.1163/138855410X552652

KanzakiN.MaeharaN.AikawaT.MatsumotoK. (2012). Bursaphelenchus firmae n. sp. (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae), isolated from Monochamus grandis Waterhouse that emerged from dead firs, Abies firma Sieb. et Zucc. Nematology 14395-404. DOI: 10.1163/156854111X602974

KanzakiN.MaeharaN.AikawaT.NakamuraK. (2013). An entomoparasitic adult form in Bursaphelenchus doui (Nematoda: Tylenchomorpha) associated with Acalolepta fraudatrix. Journal of Parasitology 99803-815. DOI: 10.1645/GE-3253.1

KanzakiN.TanakaR.Giblin-DavisR.M.DaviesK.A. (2014). New plant-parasitic nematode from the mostly mycophagous genus Bursaphelenchus discovered inside figs in Japan. PLoS ONE 9(6) e99241. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0099241

KishiY. (1995). The pine wood nematode and the Japanese pine sawyer. Tokyo, JapanThomas.

KruglikI.A.EroshenkoA.S. (2004). [ Bursaphelenchus fuchsi sp. n. (Nematoda: Bursaphelenchidae) – new nematode species from wood of pine Pinus koraiensis, Primorsky Territory.] In: SoninM.D. (Ed.). Paraziticheskie nematody rastenii i nasekomykh. Moscow, RussiaNauka pp.  96-99.

KumarS.StecherG.TamuraK. (2016). MEGA7: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 7.0 for bigger datasets. Molecular Biology and Evolution 331870-1874. DOI: 10.1093/molbev/msw054

MasseyC.L. (1974). Biology and taxonomy of nematode parasites and associates of bark beetles in the United States. Agriculture Handbook No. 446. Washington, DC, USAUS Department of Agriculture Forest Service.

RühmW. (1956). Die Nematoden der Ipiden. Parasitologische Schriftenreihe 61-438.

RühmW. (1960). Ein Beitrag zur Nomenklatur und Systematik einiger mit Scolytiden vergesellschafteter Nematodenarten. Zoologischer Anzeiger 164201-213.

RyssA. (2017). A simple express technique to process nematodes for collection slide mounts. Journal of Nematology 4927-32.

RyssA.VieiraP.MotaM.KulinichO. (2005). A synopsis of the genus Bursaphelenchus Fuchs, 1937 (Aphelenchida: Parasitaphelenchidae) with keys to species. Nematology 7393-458. DOI: 10.1163/156854105774355581

SchönfeldU.BraaschH.RiedelM.GuJ. (2014). Bursaphelenchus gillanii sp. n. (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae) – a new species of the xylophilus group in packaging wood imported from China. Nematology 1653-62. DOI: 10.1163/15685411-00002744

SeinhorstJ.W. (1959). A rapid method for the transfer of nematodes from fixative to anhydrous glycerin. Nematologica 467-69. DOI: 10.1163/187529259X00381

ShimizuA.TanakaR.AkibaM.MasuyaH.IwataR.FukudaK.KanzakiN. (2012). Influence of pine wilt damage on bark boring insects species. In: IUFRO Alien invasive species and international trade. 10-16 June 2012 at University of Tokyo (Tokyo Japan) P12. [Abstr.]

ShimizuA.TanakaR.AkibaM.MasuyaH.IwataR.FukudaK.KanzakiN. (2013). Nematodes associated with Dryocoetes uniseriatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Environmental Entomology 4279-88. DOI: 10.1603/EN12165

SulstonJ.HodgkinJ. (1988). Methods. In: WoodB. (Ed.). The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Plainview, NY, USACold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press pp.  587-606.

TomalakM. (2017). Parasitic association of the mycetophagous wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus fraudulentus with the honey fungus Armillaria ostoyae. Forest Pathology 471-10. DOI: 10.1111/efp.12325

TomalakM.FilipiakA. (2010). Description of Bursaphelenchus populi sp. n. (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae), a new member of the xylophilus group from aspen, Populus tremula L., in Europe. Nematology 12399-416. DOI: 10.1163/138855409X12559479584963

TomalakM.FilipiakA. (2011). Bursaphelenchus trypophloei sp. n. (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchinae) – an associate of the bark beetle, Trypophloeus asperatus (Gyll.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), in aspen, Populus tremula L. Nematology 13619-636. DOI: 10.1163/138855410X532168

TomalakM.FilipiakA. (2014). Bursaphelenchus fagi sp. n. (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae), an insect pathogenic nematode in Malpighian tubules of the bark beetle, Taphrorychus bicolor (Herbst.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), in European beech. Fagus sylvatica L. Nematology 16591-606. DOI: 10.1163/15685411-00002790

TomalakM.MalewskiT. (2014). Bursaphelenchus tiliae sp. n. (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae), a nematode associate of the bark beetle Ernoporus tiliae (Panz.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), in small-leaved lime, Tilia cordata Mill. Nematology 161181-1196. DOI: 10.1163/15685411-00002845

TomalakM.PomorskiJ.J. (2015). Description of Bursaphelenchus piceae sp. n. (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchinae) from larval galleries of the six-toothed spruce bark beetle, Pityogenes chalcographus (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), in Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.) Karsten. Nematology 171165-1183. DOI: 10.1163/15685411-00002931

TomalakM.WelchH.E.GallowayT.D. (1989a). Parasitism of Parasitorhabditis obtusa and P. autographi (Nematoda: Rhabditidae) in the digestive tract of their bark beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) hosts. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 5357-63. DOI: 10.1016/0022-2011(89)90074-8

TomalakM.WelchH.E.GallowayT.D. (1989b). Pathology of Aphelenchoides pityokteini (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae) in the Malpighian tubules of Pityokteines sparsus (Coleoptera Scolytidae). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 53140-141. DOI: 10.1016/0022-2011(89)90090-6

TomalakM.WelchH.E.GallowayT.D. (1990). Pathogenicity of Allantonematidae (Nematoda) infecting bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in Manitoba. Canadian Journal of Zoology 6889-100. DOI: 10.1139/z90-013

TomalakM.WorrallJ.FilipiakA. (2013). Bursaphelenchus masseyi sp. n. (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchinae) – a nematode associate of the bark beetle, Trypophloeus populi Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in aspen, Populus tremuloides Michx. affected by sudden aspen decline in Colorado. Nematology 15907-921. DOI: 10.1163/15685411-00002729

TomalakM.FilipiakA.MalewskiT.PomorskiJ. (2014). Distinction of ‘trypophloei’ group – a new typological group among wood nematodes of the genus Bursaphelenchus Fuchs, 1937. Journal of Nematology 46248.

VincentB.AltemayerV.Roux-MorabitoG.NavesP.SousaE.LieutierF. (2008). Competitive interaction between Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and the closely related species Bursaphelenchus mucronatus. Nematology 1219-230. DOI: 10.1163/156854108783476403

VrainT.C. (1993). Restriction fragment length polymorphism separates species of the Xiphinema americanum group. Journal of Nematology 25361-364.

Figures

  • View in gallery

    Bursaphelenchus taphrorychi sp. n. A: Female; B: Male; C: Dauer juvenile; D: Anterior region (female); E: Female mid-body region with spermatheca, crustaformeria, vulva, and post-uterine sac; F-H: Female tail (range of forms). I, J: Male tail with spicules, bursa and positions of caudal papillae (lateral view); K: Male tail with bursa and positions of cloacal lips and caudal papillae (ventral view, somewhat flattened).

  • View in gallery

    Light (DIC) micrographs of Bursaphelenchus taphrorychi sp. n. A-N: Adults. A: Female (entire); B: Male (entire); C-D: Anterior region: C: Head with stylet, median bulb, nerve ring, excretory pore (Ep) and dorsal pharyngeal gland; D: Head with stylet, median bulb, excretory pore (Ep) and nerve ring; E-H: Mid-body region: E: Spermatheca (Sp), crustaformeria (Cf), vulva, and post-uterine sac; F: Spermatheca, crustaformeria, and vulva; G: Spermatheca, uterus with egg, vulva, and post-uterine sac; H: Lateral field with four incisures; I-K: Male tail with spicules (lateral view); L: Male tail with bursa and caudal papillae in partially ventral view (somewhat flattened); M, N: Female tail (M: inserted micrograph of occasional female tail showing mucro-like terminus); O-Q: Dauer juveniles. O: Juvenile (entire view); P: Anterior region with faintly marked median bulb; Q: Tail.

  • View in gallery

    SEM micrographs of Bursaphelenchus taphrorychi sp. n. A, B: Female vulva and lateral field with four incisures (i.e., three bands) (lateral view); C, D: Male tail: C: Cloacal lips, caudal papillae and bursa (partially ventral view); D: Cloacal lips and spicule tip (lateral view).

  • View in gallery

    ITS-RFLP profile of Bursaphelenchus taphrorychi sp. n. Lanes 1 = DNA marker (100 bp ladder, Sigma-Aldrich); Lane 2-6 = Restriction fragments: Lane 2 = RsaI; Lane 3 = HaeIII; Lane 4 = MspI; Lane 5 = HinfI; Lane 6 = AluI; Lane 7 = rDNA amplification product.

  • View in gallery

    Maximum likelihood (ML) analysis of Bursaphelenchus taphrorychi sp. n. and 76 other Bursaphelenchus species based on partial 28S rDNA. Aphelenchoides fujianensis served as outgroup species. Phylogenetic trees were generated with 1000 bootstrap replications.

  • View in gallery

    Neighbour joining (NJ) analysis of Bursaphelenchus taphrorychi sp. n. and 76 other Bursaphelenchus species based on partial 28S rDNA. Aphelenchoides fujianensis served as outgroup species. Phylogenetic trees were generated with 1000 bootstrap replications.

  • View in gallery

    Maximum parsimony (MP) analysis of Bursaphelenchus taphrorychi sp. n. and 76 other Bursaphelenchus species based on partial 28S rDNA. Aphelenchoides fujianensis served as outgroup species. Phylogenetic trees were generated with 1000 bootstrap replications.

Information

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 23 23 12
Full Text Views 101 101 62
PDF Downloads 3 3 1
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0