Effect of temperature, time and glycerol concentration on the dehydration and rehydration process of Steinernema carpocapsae and S. feltiae in alginate granule formulation

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The osmotic responses of Steinernema carpocapsae and S. feltiae in terms of dehydration and rehydration in the presence of calcium alginate and formaldehyde were studied. Infective juveniles (IJ) were exposed to different levels of osmotic concentrations, temperatures and dehydration periods and survival of immobilised IJ was quantified. Osmotic responses showed significant differences and the highest numbers of osmotically dehydrated S. feltiae and S. carpocapsae IJ were recorded at 14 and 12% glycerol solution, respectively. Mean percentage of rehydrated IJ was significantly higher when dehydration was processed in 22% glycerol solution. Alginate-formulated IJ showed significantly different survival rates depending on the IJ state (dehydrated or non-dehydrated) and the presence of antimicrobial agent. In addition to optimising alginate formulation, the results demonstrate that the concentration of osmotic solution not only determines the percentage of dehydrated IJ, but also their recovery rate during rehydration. By adding formaldehyde, considerable increases were observed in IJ survival.

Nematology

International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Nematological Research

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Figures

  • Effect of storage of infected juveniles (IJ) of of Steinernema carpocapsae and S. feltiae in different glycerol concentrations on their dehydration. Bars are standard error of the means. Different letters on the bars indicate significant differences at P<0.05 within a species. For each treatment n=3 reps, where 1 rep = mean of four values. (Dehydration temperatures and dehydration times have been pooled.)

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  • Effect of dehydration temperature (8, 15, 25°C) under different osmotic pressure (glycerol concentrations) on percentage of dehydrated infected juveniles (IJ) of Steinernema carpocapsae and S. feltiae. For each treatment n=3 reps, where 1 rep = mean of four values; bars are standard error of the means. (Dehydration times have been pooled.)

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  • Effect of dehydration time (5, 10, 15, 20 days) under different osmotic pressure (glycerol concentrations) on percentage of dehydrated infected juveniles (IJ) of Steinernema carpocapsae and S. feltiae. For each treatment n=3 reps, where 1 rep = mean of four values; bars are standard error of the means. (Dehydration temperatures have been pooled.)

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  • Effects of glycerol concentration on survival of infected juveniles of Steinernema carpocapsae and S. feltiae after osmotically arrested period. Bars are standard error of the means. Different letters on the bars of the same species indicate significant differences at P<0.05 within that species. For each treatment n=3 reps, where 1 rep = mean of four values. (Dehydration temperatures and dehydration times have been pooled.)

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  • Effect of dehydration temperatures (8, 15, 25°C) under different osmotic pressure (glycerol concentrations) on percentage of rehydrated infected juveniles of Steinernema carpocapsae and S. feltiae. For each treatment n=3 reps, where 1 rep = mean of four values; bars are standard error of the means. (Dehydration times have been pooled.)

    View in gallery
  • Effect of dehydration time (5, 10, 15, 20 days) under different osmotic pressure (glycerol concentrations) on percentage of rehydrated infected juveniles of Steinernema carpocapsae and S. feltiae. For each treatment n=3 reps, where 1 rep = mean of four values; bars are standard error of the means. (Dehydration temperatures have been pooled.)

    View in gallery
  • Mean survival of infective juveniles of Steinernema carpocapsae and S. feltiae in different formulations during 3 months of storage. Bars are standard error of the means. Different letters on the bars on the same species indicate significant differences at P<0.05. IJ = infective granules; F = formaldehyde; G = glycerin; Gel = alginate granules.

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  • Effect of temperature (8, 15, 25°C) on survival of infective juveniles of Steinernema carpocapsae and S. feltiae in different formulations during 3 months of storage. Bars are standard error of the means. Different letters on the bars on the same species indicate significant differences at P<0.05. IJ = infective granules; F = formaldehyde; G = glycerin; Gel = alginate granules.

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  • Tripartite interactin of temperature, storage time and adjuvants on survival of infective juveniles of Steinernema feltiae in different formulations. Bars are standard error of the means. Different letters on the bars on the same species indicate significant differences at P<0.05. IJ = infective granules; F = formaldehyde; G = glycerin; Gel = alginate granules.

    View in gallery
  • Tripartite interactin of temperature, storage time and adjuvants on survival of infective juveniles of Steinernema carpocapsae in different formulations. Bars are standard error of the means. Different letters on the bars on the same species indicate significant differences at P<0.05. IJ = infective granules; F = formaldehyde; G = glycerin; Gel = alginate granules.

    View in gallery

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