Exogenous application of methyl jasmonate induces defence against Meloidogyne hapla in soybean

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Phytohormones play important roles in plant defence against plant-parasitic nematodes, although the role of jasmonate (JA) in defence against root-knot nematodes (RKN, Meloidogyne spp.) in soybean (Glycine max) was unknown. In this study, two commercial soybean cultivars, cvs DongSheng1 (DS1) and SuiNong14 (SN14), were identified as susceptible and resistant, respectively, to M. hapla. Quantitative reverse transcription (qRT)-PCR analysis showed that the expression of genes involved in JA synthesis or signalling was significantly induced in both susceptible and resistant roots at 24 and 48 h after inoculation. Exogenous application of methyl jasmonate induced defence against RKN in susceptible cv. DS1, which might be involved in altered activities of defence-related enzymes (chitinase and β-1,3 glucanase) and pathogenesis-related gene PR5 expression. The results indicate that exogenous application of JA might be an alternative strategy to induce soybean resistance against RKN.

Exogenous application of methyl jasmonate induces defence against Meloidogyne hapla in soybean

in Nematology

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Figures

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    A: The number of Meloidogyne hapla in soybean roots of cv. DongSheng1 (DS1) and cv. SuiNong14 (SN14) at 3 or 7 days post inoculation (dpi); B: The number of adult females and third- (J3) and fourth- (J4) stage juveniles in soybean roots of DS1 and SN14 at 21 dpi. Reproduction index is expressed as egg masses (C) or eggs (D) per root system of DS1 and SN14 at 35 dpi. Data are the means of one representative experiment (± SE). Asterisks represent statistically significant differences between DS1 and SN14 using Student’s t-test (P<0.05). The experiments were repeated three times with similar results.

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    Analysis of the transcription levels of genes related to the jasmonate pathway by quantitative RT-PCR in roots of two soybean cultivars. The soybean cvs DongSheng1 (DS1) and SuiNong14 (SN14) were inoculated with Meloidogyne hapla, and the roots were harvested at 24 h and 48 h post inoculation (hpi). Data were normalised by using Ubiquitin-3 expression values (the uninfected control value set at 1). Error bars represent SE. Asterisks represent significant differences compared to the uninfected control using Student’s t-test (P<0.05).

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    Effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne hapla infection in cv. DongSheng1 (DS1) (A, C) and cv. SuiNong14 (SN14) (B, D). A, B: The number of egg masses at 35 days post inoculation; C, D: eggs per root system at 35 dpi. Values are the mean ± SE of one representative experiment. Asterisks represent significant differences compared to nematode treatment alone using Student’s t-test (P<0.05). The experiments were repeated three times with similar results.

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    Effects of application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on expression of marker genes for jasmonate, ethylene and salicylic acid signals in cv. DongSheng1 (DS1) roots at 72 h post inoculation with Meloidogyne hapla. Soybean plants were pretreated with 500 μM MeJA for 24 h, and then each plant was inoculated with 400 second-stage juveniles (J2) of M. hapla. After 72 h, total RNA was prepared from the roots of control (without MeJA treatment and M. hapla invasion), M. hapla-infected plants (RKN), both M. hapla-infected and MeJA-treated plants (RKN + MeJA). Data were normalised by using Ubiquitin-3 expression values. Error bars represent standard error (SE). Bars with different letters indicate statistically significant differences using Tukey’s t-test (P<0.05).

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    Activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) (A), peroxidase (POD) (B), chitinase (C), and β-1,3 glucanase (D) in roots of two soybean cultivars (cvs DongSheng1 (DS1) and SuiNong14 (SN14)) treated or untreated with methyl jasmonate (MeJA), and at 14 dpi with 400 second-stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne hapla. Values are the mean ± SE of one representative experiment. Bars with different letters indicate statistically significant differences among each treatment (lower case letters for DS1 and capital letters for SN14) using Tukey’s t-test (P<0.05). The experiments were repeated at least twice with similar results.

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