Aphelenchoidid nematodes associated with two dominant Ficus species in Aceh, Indonesia

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Aphelenchoidid nematodes associated with the syconia of two dominant fig species, Ficus hispida and F. racemosa, were surveyed in Banda Aceh, Indonesia. Nematodes were isolated from sycones and pollinating wasps of these two fig species from four localities in the area, and identified based on the molecular sequences of two genetic loci, D2-D3 expansion segments of large subunit ribosomal RNA (D2-D3 LSU) and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (mtCOI). Molecular sequences of D2-D3 LSU and mtCOI were successfully determined for 44 and 19 individual nematodes, respectively, and these sequences were separated into four clades, i.e., types A-D of D2-D3 LSU and types I-IV of mtCOI. Phylogenetic analysis of the DNA sequences deposited in the GenBank database showed that the DNA sequences corresponded to three species, namely, Martininema baculum (type B/II), Ficophagus fleckeri (types A/I, D/IV) and F. cf. centerae (type C/III). Within these species, F. fleckeri was separated into two clades as suggested in previous studies and thus it may possibly reflect the existence of two different taxa, F. fleckeri and a cryptic species. The Indonesian F. cf. centerae was monophyletic with, but clearly separated from, the Chinese population of F. centerae and thus the Indonesian population is potentially an undescribed species. Overall, the species composition of fig-associated aphelenchoidids in the Aceh region seemed intermediate between continental Chinese and Australian species. However, further material collections followed by detailed morphological analyses are necessary to characterise or describe these fig-associated aphelenchoidids in Indonesia.


International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Nematological Research



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  • Molecular phylogenetic relationships among fig-associated aphelenchoidid species together with their associated Ficus sp. host. The maximum likelihood tree was inferred from D2-D3 expansion segments of the large subunit of ribosomal RNA. The substitution model was selected automatically as GTR + I + G (lnL = −11 584.95; AIC = 23 571.89; Pinvar = 0.176; Shape = 0.951). Bootstrap support exceeding 50% is shown for appropriate clades. This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/15685411.

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  • Molecular phylogenetic relationship among fig-associated aphelenchoidid species together with their associated Ficus sp. host. The maximum likelihood tree was inferred from partial code of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I. The substitution model was selected automatically as GTR + I + G (lnL = −4507.82; AIC = 9145.64; Pinvar = 0.482; Shape = 1.244). Bootstrap support exceeding 50% is shown for appropriate clades. This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/15685411.

    View in gallery
  • Geographical position of collection area, Banda Aceh and surrounding areas in relation to Wallace’s line. Nematode species found in the present study and their close relatives are noted beneath their type localities, and the areas mentioned in the present study are also noted.

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