Morphological and molecular characterisation of Heterodera koreana (Vovlas, Lamberti & Choo, 1992) Mundo-Ocampo, Troccoli, Subbotin, Del Cid, Baldwin & Inserra, 2008 (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) from bamboo in Japan

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The Korean cyst nematode, Heterodera koreana, was recorded for the first time from Japan and characterised morphologically, morphometrically and molecularly. In total, 41 populations were detected from soil samples collected from the rhizosphere of four bamboo species in Japan: 31 populations from moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis), seven from madake (P. bambusoides), two from henon bamboo (P. nigra var. henonis) and one from fish pole bamboo (P. aurea). The morphology and morphometrics of the Japanese population were in agreement with those of the original description of H. koreana from South Korea and other subsequent descriptions from China and Iran, with the exception of some minor differences. The results of the phylogenetic analyses of the D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S rRNA gene and ITS rRNA gene sequences confirmed the species identification and phylogenetic relationship of H. koreana with other Heterodera species. The COI mtDNA gene sequences were obtained for the first time for H. koreana. Three COI haplotypes found in Japanese H. koreana populations showed a characteristic geographical distribution in Japan.

Nematology

International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Nematological Research

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Figures

  • Light micrographs of Heterodera koreana from Tsukuba City, Ibaraki Prefecture (Tsk). A: Entire body of second-stage juvenile (J2); B: Anterior region of J2; C: Tail of J2; D: Entire cyst; E: Vulval plate. (Scale bars: A, D = 100 μm; B, C = 20 μm; E = 50 μm.) This figure is published in colour in the online edition of this journal, which can be accessed via http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/15685411.

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  • Phylogenetic relationships between Heterodera koreana and other related species: Bayesian 50% majority rule consensus tree as inferred from the D2-D3 of 28S rRNA gene sequence alignment under the GTR + G model. Posterior probabilities over 50% are given for appropriate clades. Newly obtained sequences are indicated by bold letters. Identified as H. cynodontis by Subbotin et al. (2006), the species is considered as a synonym of H. cardiolata by Subbotin et al. (2010).

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  • Phylogenetic relationships between Heterodera species: Bayesian 50% majority rule consensus tree as inferred from the analysis of the ITS rRNA gene sequence alignment under the GTR + I + G model. Posterior probabilities over 50% are given for appropriate clades. Newly obtained sequences are indicated by bold letters. Identified as H. cynodontis by Subbotin et al. (2001), the species is considered as a synonym of H. cardiolata by Subbotin et al. (2010).

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  • Phylogenetic relationships between Heterodera species: Bayesian 50% majority rule consensus tree as inferred from the analysis of the COI gene sequence alignment under the GTR + G model. Posterior probabilities over 50% are given for appropriate clades. Newly obtained sequences are indicated by bold letters. Identified as H. pratensis by Toumi et al. (2013).

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  • Geographical distribution of the studied Heterodera koreana COI haplotypes in Japan. Closed circles represent the localities where haplotype A was collected. Open circles represent the localities where haplotype B was collected. The circled bullet represents the locality where haplotype C was collected. Numbers correspond to those in Table 1.

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