Two new species and three morphospecies of Ficophagus Davies & Bartholomaeus, 2015 (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae) from Ficus subgenus Pharmacosycea (Moraceae) in Central America

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Aphelenchoidid nematodes were collected from the sycones of Ficus subgenus Pharmacosycea from Central America. Two new species of Ficophagus were recovered, and are described herein as F. maxima sp. n. and F. yoponensis sp. n. from Ficus maxima and F. yoponensis, respectively. They are differentiated from other species of the genus by a combination of morphological characters including having C-shaped females and spiral males, EP opening close to the lips, a short to long post-uterine sac, spicule characters, three pairs of subventral caudal papillae, DNA sequence data, biogeographical range, and host wasp and Ficus species affiliation. The new species are differentiated from each other by spicule characters, length of the post-uterine sac, spermatheca shape, and female tail shape. In addition, three morphospecies were collected from sycones of Ficus glabrata, F. insipida and F. tonduzii, respectively. Their morphological descriptions are presented but these taxa are not formally named as they currently lack molecular data.

Two new species and three morphospecies of Ficophagus Davies & Bartholomaeus, 2015 (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae) from Ficus subgenus Pharmacosycea (Moraceae) in Central America

in Nematology



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    Interpretive drawings of the heads of Ficophagus from figs from the named subgenus and subsection. A: Urostigma Americana (from Ficus obtusifolia); B: Pharmacosycea Pharmacosycea (F. maxima sp. n.) from the New World tropics and subtropics. Labelling according to Geraert (2006). Not to scale.

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    Ficophagus maxima sp. n. in lateral view. A: Entire reproductive female; B: Entire male; C: Anterior end of female; D: Lateral lines (showing three vs four); E: Vulval region (diagrammatic) showing spermatheca and PUS; F: Spicules; G: Female tail tips (diagrammatic); H: Male tails showing location of caudal papillae (diagrammatic). (Scale bars: A, B = 50 μm; C, E = 25 μm; F = 5 μm.)

  • View in gallery

    Ficophagus yoponensis sp. n. in lateral view. A: Entire male; B: Entire reproductive female; C: Entire pre-reproductive female; D: Spicule; E: Vulval region showing spermatheca and PUS; F: Anterior end of female; G: Posterior end of male; H: PUS; I: Female tails (diagrammatic); J: Lateral lines (diagrammatic). (Scale bars: A-C = 50 μm; E, F, H = 25 μm; G = 10 μm; D = 5 μm.)

  • View in gallery

    Ficophagus MSp 21 from Ficus glabrata in lateral view. A: Entire pre-reproductive female; B: Entire reproductive female; C: Entire male; D: Lateral lines; E: Female tail tips (diagrammatic); F: Anterior end of male; G: Anterior end of female; H: Spicules; I: Posterior end of male. (Scale bars: A-C = 50 μm; D, H = 5 μm; F, G = 25 μm; I = 10 μm.)

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    Ficophagus MSp 22 from Ficus insipida in lateral view. A: Entire reproductive female; B: Entire male; C: Lateral lines; D: Female tail tips (diagrammatic); E: Spicules; F: Vulval region of female showing spermatheca and PUS; G: Anterior end of female; H: Anterior end of male; I: Male tail tip with posterior papillae. (Scale bars: A, B = 50 μm; F-H = 25 μm; C, E = 5 μm.)

  • View in gallery

    Ficophagus MSp 32 from Ficus tonduzii in lateral view. A: Entire male; B: Entire reproductive female; C: Anterior end of male; D: Spicules; E: Female tails (diagrammatic); F: Posterior region of males (diagrammatic). (Scale bars: A, B = 50 μm; C = 25 μm; D = 5 μm.)

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    Photomicrographs of the heads of Ficophagus from figs from the subgenus and subsection Pharmacosycea Pharmacosycea in lateral view. A: Ficophagus maxima sp. n.; B: Ficophagus yoponensis sp. n.; C: Ficophagus MSp 21 from Ficus glabrata; D: F. MSp 22 from Ficus insipida. Arrowheads in A-D indicate the EP. (Scale bar = 10 μm.)

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    Photomicrographs of the spicules of Ficophagus from figs from the subgenus and subsection Pharmacosycea Pharmacosycea in lateral view. A: F. maxima sp. n.; B: F. yoponensis sp. n.; C: Ficophagus MSp 22 from Ficus insipida; D: Ficophagus MSp 32 from Ficus tonduzii. (Scale bar = 10 μm.)

  • View in gallery

    Photomicrographs of the male tail and spicules of Ficophagus MSp 21 from Ficus glabrata in lateral view. A, B: Two different focal planes of the same specimen with protracted spicules; C: Different specimen with spicules retracted. (Scale bar = 10 μm.)


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