Meloidogyne brasiliensis Charchar & Eisenback, 2002 is a junior synonym of M. ethiopica Whitehead, 1968

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The type population of Meloidogyne brasiliensis is synonymised under M. ethiopica based on morphological and morphometric similarities, as well as through biochemical, molecular and phylogenetic studies. Meloidogyne ethiopica was first described in 1968 in Tanzania using specimens from a single egg mass culture on tomato and re-described in 2004 using an isolate from Brazil. Meloidogyne brasiliensis was described in 2002 in Brazil based on specimens collected from tomato (type population) and pea. Morphological and morphometric studies of their descriptions showed important similarities in major characters as well as some general variability in others. Characterisation of esterase isozyme phenotypes of three populations of M. ethiopica from Brazil, Chile and Kenya, and two M. brasiliensis populations, resulted in only one esterase pattern (E3), a phenotype already known for M. ethiopica. In PCR assays, the species-specific 350 bp SCAR marker developed for M. ethiopica was amplified from the M. brasiliensis populations tested. In phylogenetic analyses based either on sequences of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and D2-D3 (28S) rRNA regions or on RAPD and AFLP data, the populations of both species clustered together with a strong bootstrap support. Altogether, these results provide congruent evidence that M. brasiliensis is not a valid species but rather a junior synonym of M. ethiopica.

Meloidogyne brasiliensis Charchar & Eisenback, 2002 is a junior synonym of M. ethiopica Whitehead, 1968

in Nematology

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References

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Figures

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    Esterase profiles (Est) of three populations of Meloidogyne ethiopica and M. brasiliensis (Est E3). Meloidogyne javanica (Est J3) was used as reference.

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    SCAR-PCR amplification pattern for Meloidogyne ethiopica populations from Brazil, Chile and Kenya, and the type population of M. brasiliensis, using a pair of primers species-specific for M. ethiopica (Correa et al., 2014). M: 1-kb Plus DNA ladder (Invitrogen); (–): negative control.

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    Neighbour-joining tree showing the phylogenetic relationships among Meloidogyne spp. based on the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rRNA sequences. Numbers to the left of branches are bootstrap values (%) for 1000 replicates. Codes on the right of the species names are the NCBI access numbers. States of Brazil (BR): Paraná (PR), Federal District (DF), Rio Grande do Sul (RS), São Paulo (SP), Minas Gerais (MG).

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    Parsimony tree showing the phylogenetic relationships among Meloidogyne spp. based on the D2-D3 fragment of the 28S sequences. Numbers to the left of branches are bootstrap values (%) for 1000 replicates. Codes on the right of the species names are the NCBI access numbers. States of Brazil (BR): Paraná (PR), Federal District (DF), Rio Grande do Sul (RS), São Paulo (SP), Minas Gerais (MG). Pratylenchus vulnus was used as outgroup.

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    Neighbour-joining tree showing the phylogenetic relationships of Meloidogyne species recently described in Brazil and other Meloidogyne sp. based on the combined AFLP and RAPD data set. Numbers at the nodes are bootstrap values for 1000 replicates.

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