Aphelenchoides primadentus n. sp. is described and illustrated based on its morphological, morphometric and molecular characters. It was recovered from natural forests of northern Iran in association with mosses. The new species is characterised by its body length of 502-613 μm in females and 461-564 μm in males, presence of three lines in the lateral fields, a low lip region slightly offset by a shallow depression, 11.1-13.8 μm long stylet in females, its conus being longer than the shaft (m = 53.0-68.5) and bearing well-developed, rounded basal knobs, the excretory pore located at ca one body diam. posterior to the metacorpus, a conical tail with a multipapillate terminus or with a single, warty, wide mucron-like structure at the tip, and males with 19-22 μm long arcuate spicules that lack a well-developed condylus and rostrum. The new species was morphologically compared with species of the genus having three lines in the lateral field and a multipapillate tail tip or tail with warty mucron, namely A. iranicus and A. heidelbergi. Compared to A. ensete, A. huntensis and A. gorganensis, three species with a multipapillate tail tip or warty mucron at the tail tip, the new species has a basic difference in the number of lines in the lateral field and, compared to two species, A. composticola and A. petersi, which have three lines in the lateral field and a similar overall morphology, the new species has basic differences in tail tip morphology. The results of phylogenetic analyses using partial sequences of ribosomal small subunit RNA (SSU) and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI mtDNA) genes revealed there is currently no sequenced species of the genus phylogenetically close to the new species being sequenced for these two genomic and non-genomic regions. The new species forms a clade with A. ritzemabosi in SSU, and three other species, A. besseyi, A. ritzemabosi and A. fujianensis, in the COI tree.
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